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Gloss Tags

Glossing tag Tag description Gloss class GOLD reference
?annotator uncertaintyno match
1Bantu noun class 1Noun Classno match
10Bantu noun class 10Noun Classno match
11Bantu noun class 11Noun Classno match
12Bantu noun class 12Noun Classno match
13Bantu noun class 13Noun Classno match
14Bantu noun class 14Noun Classno match
15Bantu noun class 15Noun Classno match
16Bantu noun class 16Noun Classno match
17Bantu noun class 17Noun Classno match
18Bantu noun class 18Noun Classno match
1excl1st person exclusivePerson NumberFirstPersonExclusive
1incl1st person inclusivePerson NumberFirstPersonInclusive
1P1st personPerson NumberFirstPerson
1PL1st person pluralPerson Numberno match
1SG1st person singularPerson NumberFirstPerson
2Bantu noun class 2Noun Classno match
20Bantu noun class 20Noun Classno match
21Bantu noun class 21Noun Classno match
22Bantu noun class 22Noun Classno match
23Bantu noun class 23Noun Classno match
2HMLaddressee-humbleRespectno match
2HONaddressee-honorificRespectno match
2p2nd personPerson NumberSecondPerson
2PL2nd person plural - a mixed categoryPerson Numberno match
2SG2nd person singularsecond person, singular - this is a mixed categoryPerson Numberno match
3Bantu noun class 3Noun Classno match
3B3rd person b-markedPerson Numberno match
3P3rd personPerson NumberThirdPerson
3PL3rd person plural - a mixed categoryPerson Numberno match
3Pobv3 person obviativePerson Numberno match
3Pprox3 person proximativePerson Numberno match
3SG3rd person singularPerson NumberThirdPerson
3Y3rd person y-markedPerson Numberno match
4Bantu noun class 4Noun Classno match
4P4th personPerson Numberno match
5Bantu noun class 5Noun Classno match
6Bantu noun class 6Noun Classno match
7Bantu noun class 7Noun Classno match
8Bantu noun class 8Noun Classno match
9Bantu noun class 9Noun Classno match
Aagent like argument of a canonical transitive verbSemantic Roleno match
ABBabbreviationno match
ABESabessive 'without'CaseAbessiveCase
ABLablative 'from'CaseAblativeCase
ABSabsolutiveCaseAbsolutiveCase
ABSTRincrease in abstractnessno match
ACAUSanti-causativeDiathesisAntiCausativeVoice
ACCaccusativeCaseAccusativeCase
ACTactorSemantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
ACTVactive voice VoiceActiveVoice
ADadverbial-derivationalDerivationno match
ADDadditive (also)Aspectno match
ADESadessive 'at', 'near'CaseAdessiveCase
ADJ>ADVdeadjectival adverbDerivationno match
ADJ>Ndeadjectival nounDerivationno match
ADJstemadjective stemMorphFormno match
ADJ>Vdeadjectival verbDerivationno match
ADV>ADJdeadverbial adjectiveDerivationno match
AFFMTaffirmative mood/modality occurs often in contrast to negationMood/Modalityno match
AGRagreement - a formal relationship whereby one form of a formative requires a corresponding form in another formativeAgreeementno match
AGTagentSemantic Roleagent
ALLallativeCaseAllativeCase
ANIManimateAnimacyAnimateGender
ANTanteriorTenseno match
ANTIPantipassiveno match
AORaorist is a verb form that renders as situation as being simple and undevided (attested for Ancient Greek)Tenseno match
APASSanti-passiveDiathesisAntiPassiveVoice
APPLapplicativeDiathesisApplicativeVoice
APPROXapproximateDeixisno match
AREALarealPerson Numberno match
ASPaspect - underspecifiedAspectAspectProperty
ASRTassertiveForceno match
ASSassociativity: x and a group of people no match
ASSOCassociative (connective in Bantu also called genitive or connexive) no match
ASSRassigner Semantic Roleno match
ATELatelic event Aspect no match
ATTattributiveno match
ATTBTattributor Semantic Roleno match
ATTRattribute Semantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
ATVactivatedCognitive Statusno match
AUGaugmentative Derivationno match
AUXauxiliary(morpheme)TenseAuxiliary
BENbenefactiveCaseBenefactiveCase
BENEbeneficiarySemantic Roleno match
BHVbehaver Semantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
CARD>Nnoun derived from a cardinal numberDerivationno match
CASEcase marker - underspecifiedCaseCaseProperty
CAT1catena 1 - a type of dependency chain Dependencyno match
CAT2catena 2 - a type of a dependency chainDependencyno match
CAT3catena 3 - a type of a dependency chainDependencyno match
CAUScausativeDiathesisCausativeVoice
CESSIVEcessative=egressiveAspectno match
CIRCMcircumscribeSpaceno match
CLBantu noun classNoun Classno match
CLFclassifierVerb Class no match
CLITadvcliticized adverbCliticizationClitic
CLITbenbenefactive cliticCliticizationno match
CLITcompcliticized complementizerCliticizationno match
CLITdetcliticized determinerCliticizationClitic
CLITenenclitic (Bantu)Cliticizationno match
CLITloclocative cliticCliticizationno match
CLITncliticized nounCliticizationClitic
CLITpcliticized prepositionCliticizationClitic
CLITproncliticized pronounCliticizationClitic
CLITprtvpartitive cliticCliticizationno match
CLITvcliticized verbCliticizationClitic
CLTclientSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
CMPLThe completive refers to a single event that has been successfully completed. AspectCompletiveAspect
CMPRcomparativeno match
CNJconjugationVerb Classno match
CO-EVco-eventno match
COMcomment Theme Rhemeno match
COMITcomitativeCaseComitativeCase
COMMcommon genderGenderno match
COMPLcomplementGrammatical FunctionComplement
CONconativeAspectno match
CONDconditional mood may be marked on events that are conditionedMood/ModalityConditionalModality
CONJconjunctive mood occurs in dependent sentencesMood/ModalitySubjunctiveMood
CONSverbmarking in SVCs (e.g. in Akan)Akanno match
CONSECconsecutive 'so that'no match
CONTcontinuousAspectContinuousAspect
CONTLcontlativeCaseContlativeCase
CONTPcontemporative is a mood in GreenlandicMood/Modalityno match
CONTRcontrastiveno match
COPcopularCopula
CRRcarrierSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
CTedcontainedSpaceno match
CUSTcustomaryAspectno match
CVconverbVerb FormConverb
DATdativeCaseDativeCase
DECLdeclarativeForceDeclarativeForce
DEFdefinite-the referent of an expression is identifiableReferenceno match
DEGdegreeno match
DELdelative 'down from'CaseDelativeCase
DEMdemonstrative - used to indicate the referents spatial, temporal or discourse locationReferenceno match
DESTdestinative 'to'Caseno match
DIMdiminutiveDerivationDiminutiveSize
DIRdirectionalSpaceno match
DIR-SPdirect speechForceno match
DISTdistal 'remote'Deixisno match
DIST2far distal Deixisno match
DISTRIBdistributiveAspectDistributiveAspect
DMdiscourse markerSpeechno match
DOdirect objectGrammatical FunctiondirectObject
DSTdistanceSpaceno match
DUdualNumberDualNumber
DURdurativeAspectDurativeAspect
DXSdeixisDeixisno match
DYNdynamicAspectno match
EGRegressiveAspectno match
ELATelative 'out of'CaseElativeCase
EMPHeemphatic - a part of the utterance is especially stressedInformationStructureno match
ENDPNTendpoint Spaceno match
EQTequativeCaseno match
ERGergativeCaseErgativeCase
ESSessiveCaseno match
EVIDevidential is a realis mood or modality based on what the speaker has experiencedMood/Modalityno match
EXCLexclamativeForceno match
EXPexperiencerSemantic Roleno match
EXPLETexpletive - an element that is added without changing the sense of the expressionExpletive
EXSTexistent Semantic Roleno match
EXTexteriorSpaceno match
FAMfamiliarCognitive Statusno match
FEMfeminine GenderFeminineGender
FOCfocus - an element is in focus when considered as 'new' or of special interestInformationStructureno match
FREQfrequentiveAspectFrequentiveAspect
FTfootPhonemePropertyFoot
FUTfutureTenseFutureTense
FUTcloseclose future TenseCloseFutureTense
FUTimimmediate futureTenseImmediateFutureTense
FUTnearnear futureTenseNearFutureTense
FUTrelrelative futureTenseRelativeFutureTense
FUTrmremote future TenseRemoteFutureTense
FVverb-final vowel (Bantu)Bantuno match
GENgenitiveCaseGenitiveCase
GERgerundVerb FormGerund
GERDVgerundiveVerb Formno match
GNRgenericno match
GOALgoalSemantic Rolegoal
Hhigh tonePhonemePropertyToneme
!Hdownstep highPhonemePropertyno match
HABhabitualAspectHabitualAspect
HONhonorific Respectno match
HRThortativeMood/Modalityno match
HUMhumanAnimacyHumanGender
ICVinherent complement verb (Akan)Grammatical Functionno match
IDNFidentified Semantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
IDNFRindentifier Semantic Roleno match
ILLillative 'into'CaseIllativeCase
IMPimperativeForceImperativeForce
IMP1imperativeForceImperativeForce
IMP2imperativeForceImperativeForce
INANIMinanimateAnimacyInanimateGender
INCEPinceptiveAspectInceptiveAspect
INCHinchoativeAspectno match
INCOMPL incomplete=imperfectiveAspectno match
INCORPincorporateDerivationno match
INDindicative is a realis formMood/ModalityIndicativeMood
INDCinducer Semantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
INDEFindefinite-the referent of the expression is said to be not identifiableReferenceno match
IND-SPindirect speechForceno match
INESSinessive 'inside'CaseInessiveCase
INFinfinitive - is a verb form that occurs without inflectional categories such as agreement or tense, aspect, moodVerb Formno match
INFIXinfixno match
INFOCin focusCognitive Statusno match
INGRingressiveAspectno match
INIinitiator Semantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
INSTRinstrumentalCaseInstrumentalCase
INTinterrogativeForceInterrogativeForce
INTERinteriorSpaceno match
INTRinterrogativeForceInterrogativeForce
INTSintensiveAspectno match
INTSdeintensiver (decrease)no match
INTSinintensiver (increase)no match
IPFVThe imperfective is often marked in a perfective-imperfective aspect system.AspectImperfectiveAspect
IRRThe irrealis forms express that something is actually not the caseMood/ModalityIrrealisMood
ITERiterativeAspectIterativeAspect
itrintransitiveVerb FormIntransitiveVerb
ITVitive - verbal deixis - moving away from a location or the speaker Deixisno match
IVinitial vowel (Bantu)Bantuno match
JUSSjussive mood/modality indicates wishes, desires, intensions; sometimes also purposeMood/Modalityno match
K1German subjunctiveMood/Modalityno match
K2German subjuncitve Mood/Modalityno match
KINkinshipDerivationno match
Llow tonePhonemePropertyToneme
landmarkproper nouns indicating landmarksNoun Ontologyno match
LATlativeCaseno match
LINElineSpaceno match
LOClocativeSpaceLocativeCase
LOCRELattached to a placeno match
MALFmalfactiveCaseno match
MASCmasculineGenderMasculineGender
MASCorFEMcommon gender Genderno match
MASCorNEUTcommon genderGenderno match
MASSmass (nouns, adjectives ...)no match
MAVMmain clause affirmativeForceno match
MEASmeasureno match
MEDmediumSemantic Roleno match
MEDIALmedial Deixisno match
MNRmannerMotionno match
MOmotionMotionno match
MODdefault Mood /Modality tagMood/ModalityMoodProperty
MTmid tonePhonemePropertyToneme
MUmarked useSpeechno match
N>ADJdenominal adjectiveDerivationno match
N>ADVdenominal adverbDerivationno match
NCOMPLnon-completiveAspectno match
NEGnegationNegationOperator
NEGPOLnegative polarityPolarityNegativePolarity
NEUTneuterGenderNeuterGender
NFnon-futureTenseNonFutureTense
NFUTnon-futureTenseNonFutureTense
NMLZnominalizerDerivationNominalizer
N>Nnoun derivationDerivationDerivationalMorpheme
NOMnominativeCaseNominativeCase
NPASTnon-pastTenseNonPastTense
Nprefnoun prefixNoun Classno match
Nstemnoun stemMorphFormno match
NUM>Nnoun derived from a numeralDerivationNominalizer
N>Vdenominal verbDerivationVerbalizer
oBENother person benefactiveSemantic Roleno match
OBJobjectGrammatical FunctionObject
OBJ2second objectGrammatical Functionno match
OBJapplapplied objectCliticizationno match
objcogncognate objectGrammatical Functionno match
OBJindindirect object Grammatical FunctionindirectObject
OBJv1object of V1Dependencyno match
OBJv2object of V2Dependencyno match
OBLoblique CaseObliqueCase
OBLIGobligatory mood/modalities express an obligationMood/Modalityno match
OMobject markerGrammatical FunctionObject
OPToptative mood/modality expresses wishes and commandsMood/ModalityOptativeMood
ORD>Nnoun derived from an ordinal numberDerivationno match
ORNornativeCaseno match
PARTpart-ofRelationno match
PASSpassiveDiathesisPassiveVoice
PASTpast perceived as a wholeTensePastTense
PASThsthesternal past: yesterday or earlier but not remoteTenseno match
PASTimvery recent, in the last minute or soTenseno match
PASTpastpast in the pastTenseno match
PASTrelrelative pastTenseno match
PASTrmremote pastTenseno match
PATHpathSpaceno match
PCpronominal concordAgreementno match
PERLperlativeCasePerlativeCase
PERMpermissive mood/modality expresses that something is allowedMood/Modalityno match
PFVThe perfective is often marked in a perfective-imperfective aspect system.AspectPerfectiveAspect
PHMNphenomenonSemantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
PLpluralNumberPluralNumber
PLasscplural associativePerson Numbernno match
PLCplaceSpaceno match
PNCTpunctualAspectno match
PNpossnoun derived from a possessive pronounDerivationno match
POSPOLpositive polarityPolarityPositivePolarity
POSSpossessiveCasePossessedCase
POTpotential mood/modality indicates probability : in the opinion of the speaker the event is considered likelyMood/Modalityno match
PPOSTstempostposition stemMorphFormno match
PREDpredicativeVerb FormPredicator
PRESpresentTensePresentTense
PRETpreterite - simple past tense with no additional marking of aspect or moodTenseno match
PRFperfectAspect (Tense)PerfectTense
PRIVprivative "without", "lacking" - like the abessive indicates the lacking of the noun markedCaseno match
PRLperlative (through, along)Spaceno match
PROGprogressiveAspectProgressiveAspect
PROHprohibitive is a mood/modality similar to a negative imperativeMood/ModalityProhibitiveMood
PROXproximalDeixisno match
PRSTVpersistive aspectAspectno match
PRTVpartitiveCasePartitiveCase
PSpauseSpeechno match
PSSEEpossesseeSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
PSSORpossessorSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
PTpatientSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
PTCPparticipleVerb FormParticiple
PTCP>ADJdeparticipial adjectiveDerivationno match
PURPpurpose no match
Qquestion Forceno match
QUALqualifierDerivationno match
QUANT>Nnoun derived from a quantifierDerivationno match
QUOTquotation - It is signaled that someone else is the source of a statementno match
RCPNTrecipientSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
RCVRreceiverSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
RECPreciprocalCo-referenceReciprocalMiddleVoice
REDPreduplication - root or stem (or part of those) are repeatedMorphFormno match
REFLreflexiveno match
RELrelative no match
REPrepetitiveAspectRepetitive
RESLTresultativeAspectno match
RFTLreferentialCognitive Statusno match
RGrangeSemantic Roleno match
RLNrelationalno match
RLSrealis moods indicate that something is, or is not the caseMood/ModalityRealisMood
RPSreported speechForceno match
RP-SPreported speechForceno match
RTrelative tonePhonemePropertyToneme
sBENself benefactiveSemantic Roleno match
SBJsubjectGrammatical Functionsubject
SBJVsubjunctive occurs in dependent clausesMood/ModalitySubjunctiveMood
SBJv1=θOBJv2passivDependencyno match
SBJv1=θSBJv2raisingDependencyno match
SCsmall clause Grammatical Functionno match
SCPscopeSemantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
SELCTselected Dependencyno match
SEMFsemelfactive AspectSemelfactiveAspect
SGsingularNumberSingularNumber
SGbarebare singular (e.g. used in Norwegian)Referenceno match
SLCTselectedDependencyno match
SMsubject marker Grammatical Functionsubject
S-OPsentence operator no match
SPECFspecificReferenceno match
SPTLspatialSpaceno match
SRCsourceSemantic Roleno match
SSRsenser Semantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
STstrongAgreementno match
STARTPNTstartpointSpaceno match
STATstativeAspectNonProgressiveAspect
STRstrongAgreementno match
SUPsuperlativeno match
SUPNsupinum 'infinitival verb formVerb Formno match
SYRsayerSemantic RoleSematicAssignmentSystem
TELtelic event Aspectno match
TERterminalisCaseno match
TGTtargetSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
THthemeSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
TKNtokenSemantic Roleno match
TOPtopicTheme Rhemeno match
TPIDtype identifiableCognitive Statusno match
TTLtitle (Mr., Dr.)Respectno match
UNIDuniquely identifiedCognitive Statusno match
V>ADJdeverbal adjectiveDerivationno match
V>ADVdeverbal adverbDerivationno match
VALvalueSemantic Roleno match
VBGverbiageSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
vblverbalDerivationVerbalizer
VENvenitive - verbal deixis - moving towards a location or the speakerDeixis no match
VIALvialisCaseno match
VIAPNTviapointSpaceno match
>VitrintransitivizerDerivationIntransitivizer
V>Ndeverbal nounDerivationno match
V>Nagtdeverbal agentive nounDerivationno match
V>Ninstrdeverbal instrumental nounDerivationno match
VOCvocativeCaseVocativeCase
Vstemverbal stemVerb Formno match
>VtrtransitivizerDerivationTransitivizer
WweakAgreementno match
xmultiply by (used in number systems)Numberno match
θSBJv1=θSBJv2controlDependencyno match