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Gloss Tags

Glossing tag Tag description Gloss class GOLD reference
AGRagreement - a formal relationship whereby one form of a formative requires a corresponding form in another formativeAgreeementno match
STstrongAgreementno match
STRstrongAgreementno match
WweakAgreementno match
CONSverbmarking in SVCs (e.g. in Akan)Akanno match
ANIManimateAnimacyAnimateGender
HUMhumanAnimacyHumanGender
INANIMinanimateAnimacyInanimateGender
ADDadditive (also)Aspectno match
ASPaspect - underspecifiedAspectAspectProperty
CESSIVEcessative=egressiveAspectno match
CMPLThe completive refers to a single event that has been successfully completed. AspectCompletiveAspect
CONconativeAspectno match
CONTcontinuousAspectContinuousAspect
CUSTcustomaryAspectno match
DISTRIBdistributiveAspectDistributiveAspect
DURdurativeAspectDurativeAspect
DYNdynamicAspectno match
EGRegressiveAspectno match
FREQfrequentiveAspectFrequentiveAspect
HABhabitualAspectHabitualAspect
INCEPinceptiveAspectInceptiveAspect
INCHinchoativeAspectno match
INCOMPL incomplete=imperfectiveAspectno match
INGRingressiveAspectno match
INTSintensiveAspectno match
IPFVThe imperfective is often marked in a perfective-imperfective aspect system.AspectImperfectiveAspect
ITERiterativeAspectIterativeAspect
NCOMPLnon-completiveAspectno match
PFVThe perfective is often marked in a perfective-imperfective aspect system.AspectPerfectiveAspect
PNCTpunctualAspectno match
PROGprogressiveAspectProgressiveAspect
PRSTVpersistive aspectAspectno match
REPrepetitiveAspectRepetitive
RESLTresultativeAspectno match
SEMFsemelfactive AspectSemelfactiveAspect
STATstativeAspectNonProgressiveAspect
TELtelic event Aspectno match
ATELatelic event Aspect no match
PRFperfectAspect (Tense)PerfectTense
FVverb-final vowel (Bantu)Bantuno match
IVinitial vowel (Bantu)Bantuno match
ABESabessive 'without'CaseAbessiveCase
ABLablative 'from'CaseAblativeCase
ABSabsolutiveCaseAbsolutiveCase
ACCaccusativeCaseAccusativeCase
ADESadessive 'at', 'near'CaseAdessiveCase
ALLallativeCaseAllativeCase
BENbenefactiveCaseBenefactiveCase
CASEcase marker - underspecifiedCaseCaseProperty
COMITcomitativeCaseComitativeCase
CONTLcontlativeCaseContlativeCase
DATdativeCaseDativeCase
DELdelative 'down from'CaseDelativeCase
DESTdestinative 'to'Caseno match
ELATelative 'out of'CaseElativeCase
EQTequativeCaseno match
ERGergativeCaseErgativeCase
ESSessiveCaseno match
GENgenitiveCaseGenitiveCase
ILLillative 'into'CaseIllativeCase
INESSinessive 'inside'CaseInessiveCase
INSTRinstrumentalCaseInstrumentalCase
LATlativeCaseno match
MALFmalfactiveCaseno match
NOMnominativeCaseNominativeCase
OBLoblique CaseObliqueCase
ORNornativeCaseno match
PERLperlativeCasePerlativeCase
POSSpossessiveCasePossessedCase
PRIVprivative "without", "lacking" - like the abessive indicates the lacking of the noun markedCaseno match
PRTVpartitiveCasePartitiveCase
TERterminalisCaseno match
VIALvialisCaseno match
VOCvocativeCaseVocativeCase
CLITcompcliticized complementizerCliticno match
CLITadvcliticized adverbCliticizationClitic
CLITdetcliticized determinerCliticizationClitic
CLITncliticized nounCliticizationClitic
CLITpcliticized prepositionCliticizationClitic
CLITproncliticized pronounCliticizationClitic
CLITvcliticized verbCliticizationClitic
ATVactivatedCognitive Statusno match
FAMfamiliarCognitive Statusno match
INFOCin focusCognitive Statusno match
RFTLreferentialCognitive Statusno match
TPIDtype identifiableCognitive Statusno match
UNIDuniquely identifiedCognitive Statusno match
RECPreciprocalCo-referenceReciprocalMiddleVoice
APPROXapproximateDeixisno match
DISTdistal 'remote'Deixisno match
DIST2far distal Deixisno match
DXSdeixisDeixisno match
ITVitive - verbal deixis - moving away from a location or the speaker Deixisno match
MEDIALmedial Deixisno match
PROXproximalDeixisno match
VENvenitive - verbal deixis - moving towards a location or the speakerDeixis no match
CAT1catena 1 - a type of dependency chain Dependencyno match
CAT2catena 2 - a type of a dependency chainDependencyno match
CAT3catena 3 - a type of a dependency chainDependencyno match
OBJv1object of V1Dependencyno match
OBJv2object of V2Dependencyno match
SBJv1=θOBJv2passivDependencyno match
SBJv1=θSBJv2raisingDependencyno match
SELCTselected Dependencyno match
SLCTselectedDependencyno match
θSBJv1=θSBJv2controlDependencyno match
ADadverbial-derivationalDerivationno match
ADJ>ADVdeadjectival adverbDerivationno match
ADJ>Ndeadjectival nounDerivationno match
ADJ>Vdeadjectival verbDerivationno match
ADV>ADJdeadverbial adjectiveDerivationno match
AUGaugmentative Derivationno match
CARD>Nnoun derived from a cardinal numberDerivationno match
DIMdiminutiveDerivationDiminutiveSize
INCORPincorporateDerivationno match
KINkinshipDerivationno match
N>ADJdenominal adjectiveDerivationno match
N>ADVdenominal adverbDerivationno match
NMLZnominalizerDerivationNominalizer
N>Nnoun derivationDerivationDerivationalMorpheme
NUM>Nnoun derived from a numeralDerivationNominalizer
N>Vdenominal verbDerivationVerbalizer
ORD>Nnoun derived from an ordinal numberDerivationno match
PNpossnoun derived from a possessive pronounDerivationno match
PTCP>ADJdeparticipial adjectiveDerivationno match
QUALqualifierDerivationno match
QUANT>Nnoun derived from a quantifierDerivationno match
V>ADJdeverbal adjectiveDerivationno match
V>ADVdeverbal adverbDerivationno match
vblverbalDerivationVerbalizer
>VitrintransitivizerDerivationIntransitivizer
V>Ndeverbal nounDerivationno match
V>Nagtdeverbal agentive nounDerivationno match
V>Ninstrdeverbal instrumental nounDerivationno match
>VtrtransitivizerDerivationTransitivizer
ACAUSanti-causativeDiathesisAntiCausativeVoice
APASSanti-passiveDiathesisAntiPassiveVoice
APPLapplicativeDiathesisApplicativeVoice
CAUScausativeDiathesisCausativeVoice
PASSpassiveDiathesisPassiveVoice
ASRTassertiveForceno match
DECLdeclarativeForceDeclarativeForce
DIR-SPdirect speechForceno match
EXCLexclamativeForceno match
IMPimperativeForceImperativeForce
IMP1imperativeForceImperativeForce
IMP2imperativeForceImperativeForce
IND-SPindirect speechForceno match
INTinterrogativeForceInterrogativeForce
INTRinterrogativeForceInterrogativeForce
MAVMmain clause affirmativeForceno match
Qquestion Forceno match
RPSreported speechForceno match
RP-SPreported speechForceno match
COMMcommon genderGenderno match
FEMfeminine GenderFeminineGender
MASCmasculineGenderMasculineGender
MASCorFEMcommon gender Genderno match
MASCorNEUTcommon genderGenderno match
NEUTneuterGenderNeuterGender
COMPLcomplementGrammatical FunctionComplement
DOdirect objectGrammatical FunctiondirectObject
ICVinherent complement verb (Akan)Grammatical Functionno match
OBJobjectGrammatical FunctionObject
OBJ2second objectGrammatical Functionno match
objcogncognate objectGrammatical Functionno match
OBJindindirect object Grammatical FunctionindirectObject
OMobject markerGrammatical FunctionObject
SBJsubjectGrammatical Functionsubject
SCsmall clause Grammatical Functionno match
SMsubject marker Grammatical Functionsubject
EMPHeemphatic - a part of the utterance is especially stressedInformationStructureno match
FOCfocus - an element is in focus when considered as 'new' or of special interestInformationStructureno match
AFFMTaffirmative mood/modality occurs often in contrast to negationMood/Modalityno match
CONDconditional mood may be marked on events that are conditionedMood/ModalityConditionalModality
CONJconjunctive mood occurs in dependent sentencesMood/ModalitySubjunctiveMood
CONTPcontemporative is a mood in GreenlandicMood/Modalityno match
EVIDevidential is a realis mood or modality based on what the speaker has experiencedMood/Modalityno match
HRThortativeMood/Modalityno match
INDindicative is a realis formMood/ModalityIndicativeMood
IRRThe irrealis forms express that something is actually not the caseMood/ModalityIrrealisMood
JUSSjussive mood/modality indicates wishes, desires, intensions; sometimes also purposeMood/Modalityno match
K1German subjunctiveMood/Modalityno match
K2German subjuncitve Mood/Modalityno match
MODdefault Mood /Modality tagMood/ModalityMoodProperty
OBLIGobligatory mood/modalities express an obligationMood/Modalityno match
OPToptative mood/modality expresses wishes and commandsMood/ModalityOptativeMood
PERMpermissive mood/modality expresses that something is allowedMood/Modalityno match
POTpotential mood/modality indicates probability : in the opinion of the speaker the event is considered likelyMood/Modalityno match
PROHprohibitive is a mood/modality similar to a negative imperativeMood/ModalityProhibitiveMood
RLSrealis moods indicate that something is, or is not the caseMood/ModalityRealisMood
SBJVsubjunctive occurs in dependent clausesMood/ModalitySubjunctiveMood
ADJstemadjective stemMorphFormno match
Nstemnoun stemMorphFormno match
PPOSTstempostposition stemMorphFormno match
REDPreduplication - root or stem (or part of those) are repeatedMorphFormno match
MNRmannerMotionno match
MOmotionMotionno match
1Bantu noun class 1Noun Classno match
10Bantu noun class 10Noun Classno match
11Bantu noun class 11Noun Classno match
12Bantu noun class 12Noun Classno match
13noun class 13Noun Classno match
14Bantu noun class 14Noun Classno match
15noun class 15Noun Classno match
16Bantu noun class 16Noun Classno match
17Bantu noun class 17Noun Classno match
18noun class 18Noun Classno match
2noun class 2Noun Classno match
20Bantu noun class 20Noun Classno match
21noun class 21Noun Classno match
22noun class 22Noun Classno match
23noun class 23Noun Classno match
3Bantu noun class 3Noun Classno match
4Bantu noun class 4Noun Classno match
5BBantu noun class 5Noun Classno match
6Bantu noun class 6Noun Classno match
7Bantu noun class 7Noun Classno match
8noun class 8Noun Classno match
9Bantu noun class 9Noun Classno match
CLBantu noun classNoun Classno match
Nprefnoun prefixNoun Classno match
landmarkproper nouns indicating landmarksNoun Ontologyno match
DUdualNumberDualNumber
PLpluralNumberPluralNumber
SGsingularNumberSingularNumber
xmultiply by (used in number systems)Numberno match
1excl1st person exclusivePerson NumberFirstPersonExclusive
1incl1st person inclusivePerson NumberFirstPersonInclusive
1P1st personPerson NumberFirstPerson
1PL1st person pluralPerson Numberno match
1SG1st person singularPerson NumberFirstPerson
2p2nd personPerson NumberSecondPerson
2PL2nd person plural - a mixed categoryPerson Numberno match
2SG2nd person singularsecond person, singular - this is a mixed categoryPerson Numberno match
3B3rd person b-markedPerson Numberno match
3P3rd personPerson NumberThirdPerson
3PL3rd person plural - a mixed categoryPerson Numberno match
3Pobv3 person obviativePerson Numberno match
3Pprox3 person proximativePerson Numberno match
3SG3rd person singularPerson NumberThirdPerson
3Y3rd person y-markedPerson Numberno match
4P4th personPerson Numberno match
AREALarealPerson Numberno match
PLasscplural associativePerson Numbernno match
FTfootPhonemePropertyFoot
Hhigh tonePhonemePropertyToneme
!Hdownstep highPhonemePropertyno match
Llow tonePhonemePropertyToneme
MTmid tonePhonemePropertyToneme
RTrelative tonePhonemePropertyToneme
NEGPOLnegative polarityPolarityNegativePolarity
POSPOLpositive polarityPolarityPositivePolarity
DEFdefinite-the referent of an expression is identifiableReferenceno match
DEMdemonstrative - used to indicate the referents spatial, temporal or discourse locationReferenceno match
INDEFindefinite-the referent of the expression is said to be not identifiableReferenceno match
SGbarebare singular (e.g. used in Norwegian)Referenceno match
SPECFspecificReferenceno match
PARTpart-ofRelationno match
2HMLaddressee-humbleRespectno match
2HONaddressee-honorificRespectno match
HONhonorific Respectno match
TTLtitle (Mr., Dr.)Respectno match
AGTagentSemantic Roleagent
ASSRassigner Semantic Roleno match
ATTBTattributor Semantic Roleno match
BENEbeneficiarySemantic Roleno match
BHVbehaver Semantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
CLTclientSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
CRRcarrierSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
EXPexperiencerSemantic Roleno match
EXSTexistent Semantic Roleno match
GOALgoalSemantic Rolegoal
IDNFidentified Semantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
IDNFRindentifier Semantic Roleno match
INDCinducer Semantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
MEDmediumSemantic Roleno match
oBENother person benefactiveSemantic Roleno match
PSSEEpossesseeSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
PSSORpossessorSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
PTpatientSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
RCPNTrecipientSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
RCVRreceiverSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
RGrangeSemantic Roleno match
sBENself benefactiveSemantic Roleno match
SRCsourceSemantic Roleno match
SSRsenser Semantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
SYRsayerSemantic RoleSematicAssignmentSystem
TGTtargetSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
THthemeSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
TKNtokenSemantic Roleno match
VALvalueSemantic Roleno match
VBGverbiageSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
ACTactorSemantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
ATTRattribute Semantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
INIinitiator Semantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
PHMNphenomenonSemantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
SCPscopeSemantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
CIRCMcircumscribeSpaceno match
CTedcontainedSpaceno match
DIRdirectionalSpaceno match
DSTdistanceSpaceno match
ENDPNTendpoint Spaceno match
EXTexteriorSpaceno match
INTERinteriorSpaceno match
LINElineSpaceno match
LOClocativeSpaceLocativeCase
PATHpathSpaceno match
PLCplaceSpaceno match
PRLperlative (through, along)Spaceno match
SPTLspatialSpaceno match
STARTPNTstartpointSpaceno match
VIAPNTviapointSpaceno match
DMdiscourse markerSpeechno match
MUmarked useSpeechno match
PSpauseSpeechno match
ANTanteriorTenseno match
AORaorist is a verb form that renders as situation as being simple and undevided (attested for Ancient Greek)Tenseno match
AUXauxiliary(morpheme)TenseAuxiliary
FUTfutureTenseFutureTense
FUTcloseclose future TenseCloseFutureTense
FUTimimmediate futureTenseImmediateFutureTense
FUTnearnear futureTenseNearFutureTense
FUTrelrelative futureTenseRelativeFutureTense
FUTrmremote future TenseRemoteFutureTense
NFnon-futureTenseNonFutureTense
NFUTnon-futureTenseNonFutureTense
NPASTnon-pastTenseNonPastTense
PASTpast perceived as a wholeTensePastTense
PASThsthesternal past: yesterday or earlier but not remoteTenseno match
PASTimvery recent, in the last minute or soTenseno match
PASTpastpast in the pastTenseno match
PASTrelrelative pastTenseno match
PASTrmremote pastTenseno match
PRESpresentTensePresentTense
PRETpreterite - simple past tense with no additional marking of aspect or moodTenseno match
TOPtopicTheme Rhemeno match
CNJconjugationVerb Classno match
CLFclassifierVerb Class no match
CVconverbVerb FormConverb
GERgerundVerb FormGerund
GERDVgerundiveVerb Formno match
INFinfinitive - is a verb form that occurs without inflectional categories such as agreement or tense, aspect, moodVerb Formno match
itrintransitiveVerb FormIntransitiveVerb
PREDpredicativeVerb FormPredicator
PTCPparticipleVerb FormParticiple
SUPNsupinum 'infinitival verb formVerb Formno match
Vstemverbal stemVerb Formno match
ACTVactive voice VoiceActiveVoice
?annotator uncertaintyno match
ABBabbreviationno match
ABSTRincrease in abstractnessno match
ASSadnominalno match
ASSOCassociativeno match
ATTattributiveno match
CMPRcomparativeno match
CO-EVco-eventno match
CONSECconsecutive 'so that'no match
CONTRcontrastiveno match
COPcopularCopula
DEGdegreeno match
EXPLETexpletive - an element that is added without changing the sense of the expressionExpletive
GNRgenericno match
LOCRELattached to a placeno match
MASSmass (nouns, adjectives ...)no match
MEASmeasureno match
NEGnegationNegationOperator
PURPpurpose no match
QUOTquotation - It is signaled that someone else is the source of a statementno match
REFLreflexiveno match
RELrelative no match
RLNrelationalno match
S-OPsentence operator no match
SUPsuperlativeno match