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Gloss Tags

Glossing tag Tag description Gloss class GOLD reference
ABESabessive 'without'CaseAbessiveCase
ABLablative 'from'CaseAblativeCase
ABSabsolutiveCaseAbsolutiveCase
ACCaccusativeCaseAccusativeCase
ACTVactive voice VoiceActiveVoice
ADESadessive 'at', 'near'CaseAdessiveCase
AGTagentSemantic Roleagent
ALLallativeCaseAllativeCase
ANIManimateAnimacyAnimateGender
ACAUSanti-causativeDiathesisAntiCausativeVoice
APASSanti-passiveDiathesisAntiPassiveVoice
APPLapplicativeDiathesisApplicativeVoice
ASPaspect - underspecifiedAspectAspectProperty
AUXauxiliary(morpheme)TenseAuxiliary
BENbenefactiveCaseBenefactiveCase
CASEcase marker - underspecifiedCaseCaseProperty
CAUScausativeDiathesisCausativeVoice
CLITpcliticized prepositionCliticizationClitic
CLITadvcliticized adverbCliticizationClitic
CLITdetcliticized determinerCliticizationClitic
CLITncliticized nounCliticizationClitic
CLITproncliticized pronounCliticizationClitic
CLITvcliticized verbCliticizationClitic
FUTcloseclose future TenseCloseFutureTense
COMITcomitativeCaseComitativeCase
COMPLcomplementGrammatical FunctionComplement
CMPLThe completive refers to a single event that has been successfully completed. AspectCompletiveAspect
CONDconditional mood may be marked on events that are conditionedMood/ModalityConditionalModality
CONTcontinuousAspectContinuousAspect
CONTLcontlativeCaseContlativeCase
CVconverbVerb FormConverb
COPcopularCopula
DATdativeCaseDativeCase
DECLdeclarativeForceDeclarativeForce
DELdelative 'down from'CaseDelativeCase
N>Nnoun derivationDerivationDerivationalMorpheme
DIMdiminutiveDerivationDiminutiveSize
DOdirect objectGrammatical FunctiondirectObject
DISTRIBdistributiveAspectDistributiveAspect
DUdualNumberDualNumber
DURdurativeAspectDurativeAspect
ELATelative 'out of'CaseElativeCase
ERGergativeCaseErgativeCase
EXPLETexpletive - an element that is added without changing the sense of the expressionExpletive
FEMfeminine GenderFeminineGender
1P1st personPerson NumberFirstPerson
1SG1st person singularPerson NumberFirstPerson
1excl1st person exclusivePerson NumberFirstPersonExclusive
1incl1st person inclusivePerson NumberFirstPersonInclusive
FTfootPhonemePropertyFoot
FREQfrequentiveAspectFrequentiveAspect
FUTfutureTenseFutureTense
GENgenitiveCaseGenitiveCase
GERgerundVerb FormGerund
GOALgoalSemantic Rolegoal
HABhabitualAspectHabitualAspect
HUMhumanAnimacyHumanGender
ILLillative 'into'CaseIllativeCase
FUTimimmediate futureTenseImmediateFutureTense
IMP1imperativeForceImperativeForce
IMPimperativeForceImperativeForce
IMP2imperativeForceImperativeForce
IPFVThe imperfective is often marked in a perfective-imperfective aspect system.AspectImperfectiveAspect
INANIMinanimateAnimacyInanimateGender
INCEPinceptiveAspectInceptiveAspect
INDindicative is a realis formMood/ModalityIndicativeMood
OBJindindirect object Grammatical FunctionindirectObject
INESSinessive 'inside'CaseInessiveCase
INSTRinstrumentalCaseInstrumentalCase
INTRinterrogativeForceInterrogativeForce
INTinterrogativeForceInterrogativeForce
itrintransitiveVerb FormIntransitiveVerb
>VitrintransitivizerDerivationIntransitivizer
IRRThe irrealis forms express that something is actually not the caseMood/ModalityIrrealisMood
ITERiterativeAspectIterativeAspect
LOClocativeSpaceLocativeCase
MASCmasculineGenderMasculineGender
MODdefault Mood /Modality tagMood/ModalityMoodProperty
FUTnearnear futureTenseNearFutureTense
NEGnegationNegationOperator
NEGPOLnegative polarityPolarityNegativePolarity
NEUTneuterGenderNeuterGender
NMLZnominalizerDerivationNominalizer
NUM>Nnoun derived from a numeralDerivationNominalizer
NOMnominativeCaseNominativeCase
NFnon-futureTenseNonFutureTense
NFUTnon-futureTenseNonFutureTense
NPASTnon-pastTenseNonPastTense
STATstativeAspectNonProgressiveAspect
OBJobjectGrammatical FunctionObject
OMobject markerGrammatical FunctionObject
OBLoblique CaseObliqueCase
OPToptative mood/modality expresses wishes and commandsMood/ModalityOptativeMood
PTCPparticipleVerb FormParticiple
PRTVpartitiveCasePartitiveCase
PASSpassiveDiathesisPassiveVoice
PASTpast perceived as a wholeTensePastTense
PFVThe perfective is often marked in a perfective-imperfective aspect system.AspectPerfectiveAspect
PRFperfectAspect (Tense)PerfectTense
PERLperlativeCasePerlativeCase
PLpluralNumberPluralNumber
POSPOLpositive polarityPolarityPositivePolarity
POSSpossessiveCasePossessedCase
PREDpredicativeVerb FormPredicator
PRESpresentTensePresentTense
PROGprogressiveAspectProgressiveAspect
PROHprohibitive is a mood/modality similar to a negative imperativeMood/ModalityProhibitiveMood
RLSrealis moods indicate that something is, or is not the caseMood/ModalityRealisMood
RECPreciprocalCo-referenceReciprocalMiddleVoice
FUTrelrelative futureTenseRelativeFutureTense
FUTrmremote future TenseRemoteFutureTense
REPrepetitiveAspectRepetitive
2p2nd personPerson NumberSecondPerson
SCPscopeSemantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
CRRcarrierSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
IDNFidentified Semantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
VBGverbiageSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
RCVRreceiverSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
TGTtargetSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
INDCinducer Semantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
PHMNphenomenonSemantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
SSRsenser Semantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
BHVbehaver Semantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
ATTRattribute Semantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
INIinitiator Semantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
CLTclientSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
RCPNTrecipientSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
PSSEEpossesseeSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
PSSORpossessorSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
PTpatientSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
ACTactorSemantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
THthemeSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
SYRsayerSemantic RoleSematicAssignmentSystem
SEMFsemelfactive AspectSemelfactiveAspect
SGsingularNumberSingularNumber
SMsubject marker Grammatical Functionsubject
SBJsubjectGrammatical Functionsubject
CONJconjunctive mood occurs in dependent sentencesMood/ModalitySubjunctiveMood
SBJVsubjunctive occurs in dependent clausesMood/ModalitySubjunctiveMood
3P3rd personPerson NumberThirdPerson
3SG3rd person singularPerson NumberThirdPerson
MTmid tonePhonemePropertyToneme
Hhigh tonePhonemePropertyToneme
Llow tonePhonemePropertyToneme
RTrelative tonePhonemePropertyToneme
>VtrtransitivizerDerivationTransitivizer
N>Vdenominal verbDerivationVerbalizer
vblverbalDerivationVerbalizer
VOCvocativeCaseVocativeCase
INFinfinitive - is a verb form that occurs without inflectional categories such as agreement or tense, aspect, moodVerb Formno match
ADV>ADJdeadverbial adjectiveDerivationno match
INDEFindefinite-the referent of the expression is said to be not identifiableReferenceno match
DEFdefinite-the referent of an expression is identifiableReferenceno match
PPOSTstempostposition stemMorphFormno match
SLCTselectedDependencyno match
FOCfocus - an element is in focus when considered as 'new' or of special interestInformationStructureno match
2SG2nd person singularsecond person, singular - this is a mixed categoryPerson Numberno match
V>Nagtdeverbal agentive nounDerivationno match
V>Ninstrdeverbal instrumental nounDerivationno match
ORNornativeCaseno match
PLasscplural associativePerson Numbernno match
10Bantu noun class 10Noun Classno match
sBENself benefactiveSemantic Roleno match
11Bantu noun class 11Noun Classno match
16Bantu noun class 16Noun Classno match
3Bantu noun class 3Noun Classno match
4P4th personPerson Numberno match
7Bantu noun class 7Noun Classno match
9Bantu noun class 9Noun Classno match
K2German subjuncitve Mood/Modalityno match
QUOTquotation - It is signaled that someone else is the source of a statementno match
AORaorist is a verb form that renders as situation as being simple and undevided (attested for Ancient Greek)Tenseno match
3PL3rd person plural - a mixed categoryPerson Numberno match
2PL2nd person plural - a mixed categoryPerson Numberno match
AGRagreement - a formal relationship whereby one form of a formative requires a corresponding form in another formativeAgreeementno match
IDNFRindentifier Semantic Roleno match
VALvalueSemantic Roleno match
TKNtokenSemantic Roleno match
ATTBTattributor Semantic Roleno match
ASSRassigner Semantic Roleno match
EXSTexistent Semantic Roleno match
MEDmediumSemantic Roleno match
RGrangeSemantic Roleno match
BENEbeneficiarySemantic Roleno match
DSTdistanceSpaceno match
PLCplaceSpaceno match
CAT1catena 1 - a type of dependency chain Dependencyno match
CAT2catena 2 - a type of a dependency chainDependencyno match
CAT3catena 3 - a type of a dependency chainDependencyno match
PURPpurpose no match
17Bantu noun class 17Noun Classno match
4Bantu noun class 4Noun Classno match
6Bantu noun class 6Noun Classno match
OBLIGobligatory mood/modalities express an obligationMood/Modalityno match
CONTPcontemporative is a mood in GreenlandicMood/Modalityno match
K1German subjunctiveMood/Modalityno match
PERMpermissive mood/modality expresses that something is allowedMood/Modalityno match
JUSSjussive mood/modality indicates wishes, desires, intensions; sometimes also purposeMood/Modalityno match
AFFMTaffirmative mood/modality occurs often in contrast to negationMood/Modalityno match
POTpotential mood/modality indicates probability : in the opinion of the speaker the event is considered likelyMood/Modalityno match
MEASmeasureno match
S-OPsentence operator no match
TELtelic event Aspectno match
ATELatelic event Aspect no match
MASSmass (nouns, adjectives ...)no match
VENvenitive - verbal deixis - moving towards a location or the speakerDeixis no match
ITVitive - verbal deixis - moving away from a location or the speaker Deixisno match
RLNrelationalno match
DEMdemonstrative - used to indicate the referents spatial, temporal or discourse locationReferenceno match
HRThortativeMood/Modalityno match
ORD>Nnoun derived from an ordinal numberDerivationno match
CARD>Nnoun derived from a cardinal numberDerivationno match
QUANT>Nnoun derived from a quantifierDerivationno match
PNpossnoun derived from a possessive pronounDerivationno match
MASCorFEMcommon gender Genderno match
MASCorNEUTcommon genderGenderno match
INFIXinfixno match
INTSinintensiver (increase)no match
INTSdeintensiver (decrease)no match
COMcomment Theme Rhemeno match
PCpronominal concordAgreementno match
CLITloclocative cliticCliticizationno match
CLITprtvpartitive cliticCliticizationno match
CLITbenbenefactive cliticCliticizationno match
OBJapplapplied objectCliticizationno match
CLITcompcliticized complementizerCliticizationno match
13Bantu noun class 13Noun Classno match
15Bantu noun class 15Noun Classno match
18Bantu noun class 18Noun Classno match
2Bantu noun class 2Noun Classno match
21Bantu noun class 21Noun Classno match
22Bantu noun class 22Noun Classno match
23Bantu noun class 23Noun Classno match
5Bantu noun class 5Noun Classno match
8Bantu noun class 8Noun Classno match
ASSOCassociative (connective in Bantu also called genitive or connexive) no match
Aagent like argument of a canonical transitive verbSemantic Roleno match
ANTIPantipassiveno match
CLITenenclitic (Bantu)Cliticizationno match
1PL1st person pluralPerson Numberno match
2HMLaddressee-humbleRespectno match
2HONaddressee-honorificRespectno match
3Pobv3 person obviativePerson Numberno match
3Pprox3 person proximativePerson Numberno match
ABBabbreviationno match
ADJ>ADVdeadjectival adverbDerivationno match
ADJ>Vdeadjectival verbDerivationno match
ANTanteriorTenseno match
APPROXapproximateDeixisno match
ASRTassertiveForceno match
ATTattributiveno match
CESSIVEcessative=egressiveAspectno match
CIRCMcircumscribeSpaceno match
CMPRcomparativeno match
CO-EVco-eventno match
VIALvialisCaseno match
VIAPNTviapointSpaceno match
V>Ndeverbal nounDerivationno match
Vstemverbal stemVerb Formno match
WweakAgreementno match
xmultiply by (used in number systems)Numberno match
V>ADJdeverbal adjectiveDerivationno match
TOPtopicTheme Rhemeno match
TERterminalisCaseno match
SUPsuperlativeno match
STARTPNTstartpointSpaceno match
STstrongAgreementno match
SRCsourceSemantic Roleno match
ADDadditive (also)Aspectno match
ADJ>Ndeadjectival nounDerivationno match
GERDVgerundiveVerb Formno match
V>ADVdeverbal adverbDerivationno match
CLBantu noun classNoun Classno match
1Bantu noun class 1Noun Classno match
12Bantu noun class 12Noun Classno match
14Bantu noun class 14Noun Classno match
20Bantu noun class 20Noun Classno match
EVIDevidential is a realis mood or modality based on what the speaker has experiencedMood/Modalityno match
SPTLspatialSpaceno match
SCsmall clause Grammatical Functionno match
RPSreported speechForceno match
COMMcommon genderGenderno match
CONSverbmarking in SVCs (e.g. in Akan)Akanno match
CONSECconsecutive 'so that'no match
REFLreflexiveno match
PSpauseSpeechno match
PROXproximalDeixisno match
PASThsthesternal past: yesterday or earlier but not remoteTenseno match
PASTimvery recent, in the last minute or soTenseno match
PASTpastpast in the pastTenseno match
PASTrelrelative pastTenseno match
PATHpathSpaceno match
PNCTpunctualAspectno match
CTedcontainedSpaceno match
DESTdestinative 'to'Caseno match
DIRdirectionalSpaceno match
OBJ2second objectGrammatical Functionno match
objcogncognate objectGrammatical Functionno match
Nprefnoun prefixNoun Classno match
landmarkproper nouns indicating landmarksNoun Ontologyno match
PARTpart-ofRelationno match
HONhonorific Respectno match
ENDPNTendpoint Spaceno match
LINElineSpaceno match
EXTexteriorSpaceno match
MNRmannerMotionno match
MOmotionMotionno match
MUmarked useSpeechno match
ASSassociativity: x and a group of people no match
!Hdownstep highPhonemePropertyno match
INCOMPL incomplete=imperfectiveAspectno match
EGRegressiveAspectno match
DYNdynamicAspectno match
INGRingressiveAspectno match
INTSintensiveAspectno match
IVinitial vowel (Bantu)Bantuno match
FVverb-final vowel (Bantu)Bantuno match
EQTequativeCaseno match
ESSessiveCaseno match
LATlativeCaseno match
MALFmalfactiveCaseno match
DXSdeixisDeixisno match
MEDIALmedial Deixisno match
EXCLexclamativeForceno match
MAVMmain clause affirmativeForceno match
GNRgenericno match
DMdiscourse markerSpeechno match
Qquestion Forceno match
ICVinherent complement verb (Akan)Grammatical Functionno match
TTLtitle (Mr., Dr.)Respectno match
PASTrmremote pastTenseno match
INCHinchoativeAspectno match
RELrelative no match
STRstrongAgreementno match
DISTdistal 'remote'Deixisno match
DIST2far distal Deixisno match
PRSTVpersistive aspectAspectno match
PRETpreterite - simple past tense with no additional marking of aspect or moodTenseno match
SGbarebare singular (e.g. used in Norwegian)Referenceno match
INTERinteriorSpaceno match
N>ADJdenominal adjectiveDerivationno match
EMPHeemphatic - a part of the utterance is especially stressedInformationStructureno match
REDPreduplication - root or stem (or part of those) are repeatedMorphFormno match
DIR-SPdirect speechForceno match
RP-SPreported speechForceno match
IND-SPindirect speechForceno match
SUPNsupinum 'infinitival verb formVerb Formno match
KINkinshipDerivationno match
?annotator uncertaintyno match
EXPexperiencerSemantic Roleno match
SPECFspecificReferenceno match
RESLTresultativeAspectno match
ATVactivatedCognitive Statusno match
INFOCin focusCognitive Statusno match
FAMfamiliarCognitive Statusno match
UNIDuniquely identifiedCognitive Statusno match
RFTLreferentialCognitive Statusno match
TPIDtype identifiableCognitive Statusno match
AUGaugmentative Derivationno match
DEGdegreeno match
PRLperlative (through, along)Spaceno match
3B3rd person b-markedPerson Numberno match
3Y3rd person y-markedPerson Numberno match
ADadverbial-derivationalDerivationno match
AREALarealPerson Numberno match
CLFclassifierVerb Class no match
CNJconjugationVerb Classno match
CONconativeAspectno match
CUSTcustomaryAspectno match
INCORPincorporateDerivationno match
QUALqualifierDerivationno match
N>ADVdenominal adverbDerivationno match
PTCP>ADJdeparticipial adjectiveDerivationno match
ADJstemadjective stemMorphFormno match
ABSTRincrease in abstractnessno match
CONTRcontrastiveno match
LOCRELattached to a placeno match
OBJv1object of V1Dependencyno match
OBJv2object of V2Dependencyno match
θSBJv1=θSBJv2controlDependencyno match
SBJv1=θOBJv2passivDependencyno match
SBJv1=θSBJv2raisingDependencyno match
SELCTselected Dependencyno match
PRIVprivative "without", "lacking" - like the abessive indicates the lacking of the noun markedCaseno match
oBENother person benefactiveSemantic Roleno match
Nstemnoun stemMorphFormno match
NCOMPLnon-completiveAspectno match