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Gloss Tags

Glossing tag Tag description Gloss class GOLD reference
1P1st personPerson NumberFirstPerson
1excl1st person exclusivePerson NumberFirstPersonExclusive
1incl1st person inclusivePerson NumberFirstPersonInclusive
1PL1st person pluralPerson Numberno match
1SG1st person singularPerson NumberFirstPerson
2p2nd personPerson NumberSecondPerson
2PL2nd person plural - a mixed categoryPerson Numberno match
2SG2nd person singularsecond person, singular - this is a mixed categoryPerson Numberno match
3Pobv3 person obviativePerson Numberno match
3Pprox3 person proximativePerson Numberno match
3P3rd personPerson NumberThirdPerson
3B3rd person b-markedPerson Numberno match
3PL3rd person plural - a mixed categoryPerson Numberno match
3SG3rd person singularPerson NumberThirdPerson
3Y3rd person y-markedPerson Numberno match
4P4th personPerson Numberno match
ABBabbreviationno match
ABESabessive 'without'CaseAbessiveCase
ABLablative 'from'CaseAblativeCase
ABSabsolutiveCaseAbsolutiveCase
ACCaccusativeCaseAccusativeCase
ATVactivatedCognitive Statusno match
ACTVactive voice VoiceActiveVoice
ACTactorSemantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
ADDadditive (also)Aspectno match
2HONaddressee-honorificRespectno match
2HMLaddressee-humbleRespectno match
ADESadessive 'at', 'near'CaseAdessiveCase
ADJstemadjective stemMorphFormno match
ADadverbial-derivationalDerivationno match
AFFMTaffirmative mood/modality occurs often in contrast to negationMood/Modalityno match
AGTagentSemantic Roleagent
Aagent like argument of a canonical transitive verbSemantic Roleno match
AGRagreement - a formal relationship whereby one form of a formative requires a corresponding form in another formativeAgreeementno match
ALLallativeCaseAllativeCase
ANIManimateAnimacyAnimateGender
?annotator uncertaintyno match
ANTanteriorTenseno match
ACAUSanti-causativeDiathesisAntiCausativeVoice
ANTIPantipassiveno match
APASSanti-passiveDiathesisAntiPassiveVoice
AORaorist is a verb form that renders as situation as being simple and undevided (attested for Ancient Greek)Tenseno match
APPLapplicativeDiathesisApplicativeVoice
OBJapplapplied objectCliticizationno match
APPROXapproximateDeixisno match
AREALarealPerson Numberno match
ASPaspect - underspecifiedAspectAspectProperty
ASRTassertiveForceno match
ASSRassigner Semantic Roleno match
ASSOCassociative (connective in Bantu also called genitive or connexive) no match
ASSassociativity: x and a group of people no match
ATELatelic event Aspect no match
LOCRELattached to a placeno match
ATTRattribute Semantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
ATTattributiveno match
ATTBTattributor Semantic Roleno match
AUGaugmentative Derivationno match
AUXauxiliary(morpheme)TenseAuxiliary
CLBantu noun classNoun Classno match
1Bantu noun class 1Noun Classno match
10Bantu noun class 10Noun Classno match
11Bantu noun class 11Noun Classno match
12Bantu noun class 12Noun Classno match
13Bantu noun class 13Noun Classno match
14Bantu noun class 14Noun Classno match
15Bantu noun class 15Noun Classno match
16Bantu noun class 16Noun Classno match
17Bantu noun class 17Noun Classno match
18Bantu noun class 18Noun Classno match
2Bantu noun class 2Noun Classno match
20Bantu noun class 20Noun Classno match
21Bantu noun class 21Noun Classno match
22Bantu noun class 22Noun Classno match
23Bantu noun class 23Noun Classno match
3Bantu noun class 3Noun Classno match
4Bantu noun class 4Noun Classno match
5Bantu noun class 5Noun Classno match
6Bantu noun class 6Noun Classno match
7Bantu noun class 7Noun Classno match
8Bantu noun class 8Noun Classno match
9Bantu noun class 9Noun Classno match
SGbarebare singular (e.g. used in Norwegian)Referenceno match
BHVbehaver Semantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
BENbenefactiveCaseBenefactiveCase
CLITbenbenefactive cliticCliticizationno match
BENEbeneficiarySemantic Roleno match
CRRcarrierSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
CASEcase marker - underspecifiedCaseCaseProperty
CAT1catena 1 - a type of dependency chain Dependencyno match
CAT2catena 2 - a type of a dependency chainDependencyno match
CAT3catena 3 - a type of a dependency chainDependencyno match
CAUScausativeDiathesisCausativeVoice
CESSIVEcessative=egressiveAspectno match
CIRCMcircumscribeSpaceno match
CLFclassifierVerb Class no match
CLTclientSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
CLITadvcliticized adverbCliticizationClitic
CLITcompcliticized complementizerCliticizationno match
CLITdetcliticized determinerCliticizationClitic
CLITncliticized nounCliticizationClitic
CLITpcliticized prepositionCliticizationClitic
CLITproncliticized pronounCliticizationClitic
CLITvcliticized verbCliticizationClitic
FUTcloseclose future TenseCloseFutureTense
CO-EVco-eventno match
objcogncognate objectGrammatical Functionno match
COMITcomitativeCaseComitativeCase
COMcomment Theme Rhemeno match
COMMcommon genderGenderno match
MASCorNEUTcommon genderGenderno match
MASCorFEMcommon gender Genderno match
CMPRcomparativeno match
COMPLcomplementGrammatical FunctionComplement
CONconativeAspectno match
CONDconditional mood may be marked on events that are conditionedMood/ModalityConditionalModality
CNJconjugationVerb Classno match
CONJconjunctive mood occurs in dependent sentencesMood/ModalitySubjunctiveMood
CONSECconsecutive 'so that'no match
CTedcontainedSpaceno match
CONTPcontemporative is a mood in GreenlandicMood/Modalityno match
CONTcontinuousAspectContinuousAspect
CONTLcontlativeCaseContlativeCase
CONTRcontrastiveno match
θSBJv1=θSBJv2controlDependencyno match
CVconverbVerb FormConverb
COPcopularCopula
CUSTcustomaryAspectno match
DATdativeCaseDativeCase
ADJ>ADVdeadjectival adverbDerivationno match
ADJ>Ndeadjectival nounDerivationno match
ADJ>Vdeadjectival verbDerivationno match
ADV>ADJdeadverbial adjectiveDerivationno match
DECLdeclarativeForceDeclarativeForce
MODdefault Mood /Modality tagMood/ModalityMoodProperty
DEFdefinite-the referent of an expression is identifiableReferenceno match
DEGdegreeno match
DXSdeixisDeixisno match
DELdelative 'down from'CaseDelativeCase
DEMdemonstrative - used to indicate the referents spatial, temporal or discourse locationReferenceno match
N>ADJdenominal adjectiveDerivationno match
N>ADVdenominal adverbDerivationno match
N>Vdenominal verbDerivationVerbalizer
PTCP>ADJdeparticipial adjectiveDerivationno match
DESTdestinative 'to'Caseno match
V>ADJdeverbal adjectiveDerivationno match
V>ADVdeverbal adverbDerivationno match
V>Nagtdeverbal agentive nounDerivationno match
V>Ninstrdeverbal instrumental nounDerivationno match
V>Ndeverbal nounDerivationno match
DIMdiminutiveDerivationDiminutiveSize
DIRdirectionalSpaceno match
DOdirect objectGrammatical FunctiondirectObject
DIR-SPdirect speechForceno match
DMdiscourse markerSpeechno match
DISTdistal 'remote'Deixisno match
DSTdistanceSpaceno match
DISTRIBdistributiveAspectDistributiveAspect
!Hdownstep highPhonemePropertyno match
DUdualNumberDualNumber
DURdurativeAspectDurativeAspect
DYNdynamicAspectno match
EMPHeemphatic - a part of the utterance is especially stressedInformationStructureno match
EGRegressiveAspectno match
ELATelative 'out of'CaseElativeCase
CLITenenclitic (Bantu)Cliticizationno match
ENDPNTendpoint Spaceno match
EQTequativeCaseno match
ERGergativeCaseErgativeCase
ESSessiveCaseno match
EVIDevidential is a realis mood or modality based on what the speaker has experiencedMood/Modalityno match
EXCLexclamativeForceno match
EXSTexistent Semantic Roleno match
EXPexperiencerSemantic Roleno match
EXPLETexpletive - an element that is added without changing the sense of the expressionExpletive
EXTexteriorSpaceno match
FAMfamiliarCognitive Statusno match
DIST2far distal Deixisno match
FEMfeminine GenderFeminineGender
FOCfocus - an element is in focus when considered as 'new' or of special interestInformationStructureno match
FTfootPhonemePropertyFoot
FREQfrequentiveAspectFrequentiveAspect
FUTfutureTenseFutureTense
GNRgenericno match
GENgenitiveCaseGenitiveCase
K2German subjuncitve Mood/Modalityno match
K1German subjunctiveMood/Modalityno match
GERgerundVerb FormGerund
GERDVgerundiveVerb Formno match
GOALgoalSemantic Rolegoal
HABhabitualAspectHabitualAspect
PASThsthesternal past: yesterday or earlier but not remoteTenseno match
Hhigh tonePhonemePropertyToneme
HONhonorific Respectno match
HRThortativeMood/Modalityno match
HUMhumanAnimacyHumanGender
IDNFidentified Semantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
ILLillative 'into'CaseIllativeCase
FUTimimmediate futureTenseImmediateFutureTense
IMPimperativeForceImperativeForce
IMP1imperativeForceImperativeForce
IMP2imperativeForceImperativeForce
INANIMinanimateAnimacyInanimateGender
INCEPinceptiveAspectInceptiveAspect
INCHinchoativeAspectno match
INCOMPL incomplete=imperfectiveAspectno match
INCORPincorporateDerivationno match
ABSTRincrease in abstractnessno match
INDEFindefinite-the referent of the expression is said to be not identifiableReferenceno match
IDNFRindentifier Semantic Roleno match
INDindicative is a realis formMood/ModalityIndicativeMood
OBJindindirect object Grammatical FunctionindirectObject
IND-SPindirect speechForceno match
INDCinducer Semantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
INESSinessive 'inside'CaseInessiveCase
INFinfinitive - is a verb form that occurs without inflectional categories such as agreement or tense, aspect, moodVerb Formno match
INFIXinfixno match
INFOCin focusCognitive Statusno match
INGRingressiveAspectno match
ICVinherent complement verb (Akan)Grammatical Functionno match
IVinitial vowel (Bantu)Bantuno match
INIinitiator Semantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
INSTRinstrumentalCaseInstrumentalCase
INTSintensiveAspectno match
INTSdeintensiver (decrease)no match
INTSinintensiver (increase)no match
INTERinteriorSpaceno match
INTinterrogativeForceInterrogativeForce
INTRinterrogativeForceInterrogativeForce
itrintransitiveVerb FormIntransitiveVerb
>VitrintransitivizerDerivationIntransitivizer
ITERiterativeAspectIterativeAspect
ITVitive - verbal deixis - moving away from a location or the speaker Deixisno match
JUSSjussive mood/modality indicates wishes, desires, intensions; sometimes also purposeMood/Modalityno match
KINkinshipDerivationno match
LATlativeCaseno match
LINElineSpaceno match
LOClocativeSpaceLocativeCase
CLITloclocative cliticCliticizationno match
Llow tonePhonemePropertyToneme
MAVMmain clause affirmativeForceno match
MALFmalfactiveCaseno match
MNRmannerMotionno match
MUmarked useSpeechno match
MASCmasculineGenderMasculineGender
MASSmass (nouns, adjectives ...)no match
MEASmeasureno match
MEDIALmedial Deixisno match
MEDmediumSemantic Roleno match
MTmid tonePhonemePropertyToneme
MOmotionMotionno match
xmultiply by (used in number systems)Numberno match
FUTnearnear futureTenseNearFutureTense
NEGnegationNegationOperator
NEGPOLnegative polarityPolarityNegativePolarity
NEUTneuterGenderNeuterGender
NMLZnominalizerDerivationNominalizer
NOMnominativeCaseNominativeCase
NCOMPLnon-completiveAspectno match
NFnon-futureTenseNonFutureTense
NFUTnon-futureTenseNonFutureTense
NPASTnon-pastTenseNonPastTense
N>Nnoun derivationDerivationDerivationalMorpheme
CARD>Nnoun derived from a cardinal numberDerivationno match
ORD>Nnoun derived from an ordinal numberDerivationno match
NUM>Nnoun derived from a numeralDerivationNominalizer
PNpossnoun derived from a possessive pronounDerivationno match
QUANT>Nnoun derived from a quantifierDerivationno match
Nprefnoun prefixNoun Classno match
Nstemnoun stemMorphFormno match
OBJobjectGrammatical FunctionObject
OMobject markerGrammatical FunctionObject
OBJv1object of V1Dependencyno match
OBJv2object of V2Dependencyno match
OBLIGobligatory mood/modalities express an obligationMood/Modalityno match
OBLoblique CaseObliqueCase
OPToptative mood/modality expresses wishes and commandsMood/ModalityOptativeMood
ORNornativeCaseno match
oBENother person benefactiveSemantic Roleno match
PTCPparticipleVerb FormParticiple
PRTVpartitiveCasePartitiveCase
CLITprtvpartitive cliticCliticizationno match
PARTpart-ofRelationno match
SBJv1=θOBJv2passivDependencyno match
PASSpassiveDiathesisPassiveVoice
PASTpastpast in the pastTenseno match
PASTpast perceived as a wholeTensePastTense
PATHpathSpaceno match
PTpatientSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
PSpauseSpeechno match
PRFperfectAspect (Tense)PerfectTense
PERLperlativeCasePerlativeCase
PRLperlative (through, along)Spaceno match
PERMpermissive mood/modality expresses that something is allowedMood/Modalityno match
PRSTVpersistive aspectAspectno match
PHMNphenomenonSemantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
PLCplaceSpaceno match
PLpluralNumberPluralNumber
PLasscplural associativePerson Numbernno match
POSPOLpositive polarityPolarityPositivePolarity
PSSEEpossesseeSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
POSSpossessiveCasePossessedCase
PSSORpossessorSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
PPOSTstempostposition stemMorphFormno match
POTpotential mood/modality indicates probability : in the opinion of the speaker the event is considered likelyMood/Modalityno match
PREDpredicativeVerb FormPredicator
PRESpresentTensePresentTense
PRETpreterite - simple past tense with no additional marking of aspect or moodTenseno match
PRIVprivative "without", "lacking" - like the abessive indicates the lacking of the noun markedCaseno match
PROGprogressiveAspectProgressiveAspect
PROHprohibitive is a mood/modality similar to a negative imperativeMood/ModalityProhibitiveMood
PCpronominal concordAgreementno match
landmarkproper nouns indicating landmarksNoun Ontologyno match
PROXproximalDeixisno match
PNCTpunctualAspectno match
PURPpurpose no match
QUALqualifierDerivationno match
Qquestion Forceno match
QUOTquotation - It is signaled that someone else is the source of a statementno match
SBJv1=θSBJv2raisingDependencyno match
RGrangeSemantic Roleno match
RLSrealis moods indicate that something is, or is not the caseMood/ModalityRealisMood
RCVRreceiverSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
RCPNTrecipientSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
RECPreciprocalCo-referenceReciprocalMiddleVoice
REDPreduplication - root or stem (or part of those) are repeatedMorphFormno match
RFTLreferentialCognitive Statusno match
REFLreflexiveno match
RLNrelationalno match
RELrelative no match
FUTrelrelative futureTenseRelativeFutureTense
PASTrelrelative pastTenseno match
RTrelative tonePhonemePropertyToneme
FUTrmremote future TenseRemoteFutureTense
PASTrmremote pastTenseno match
REPrepetitiveAspectRepetitive
RPSreported speechForceno match
RP-SPreported speechForceno match
RESLTresultativeAspectno match
SYRsayerSemantic RoleSematicAssignmentSystem
SCPscopeSemantic Role SemanticAssignmentSystem
OBJ2second objectGrammatical Functionno match
SLCTselectedDependencyno match
SELCTselected Dependencyno match
sBENself benefactiveSemantic Roleno match
SEMFsemelfactive AspectSemelfactiveAspect
SSRsenser Semantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
S-OPsentence operator no match
SGsingularNumberSingularNumber
SCsmall clause Grammatical Functionno match
SRCsourceSemantic Roleno match
SPTLspatialSpaceno match
SPECFspecificReferenceno match
STARTPNTstartpointSpaceno match
STATstativeAspectNonProgressiveAspect
STstrongAgreementno match
STRstrongAgreementno match
SBJsubjectGrammatical Functionsubject
SMsubject marker Grammatical Functionsubject
SBJVsubjunctive occurs in dependent clausesMood/ModalitySubjunctiveMood
SUPsuperlativeno match
SUPNsupinum 'infinitival verb formVerb Formno match
TGTtargetSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
TELtelic event Aspectno match
TERterminalisCaseno match
CMPLThe completive refers to a single event that has been successfully completed. AspectCompletiveAspect
IPFVThe imperfective is often marked in a perfective-imperfective aspect system.AspectImperfectiveAspect
IRRThe irrealis forms express that something is actually not the caseMood/ModalityIrrealisMood
THthemeSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
PFVThe perfective is often marked in a perfective-imperfective aspect system.AspectPerfectiveAspect
TTLtitle (Mr., Dr.)Respectno match
TKNtokenSemantic Roleno match
TOPtopicTheme Rhemeno match
>VtrtransitivizerDerivationTransitivizer
TPIDtype identifiableCognitive Statusno match
UNIDuniquely identifiedCognitive Statusno match
VALvalueSemantic Roleno match
VENvenitive - verbal deixis - moving towards a location or the speakerDeixis no match
vblverbalDerivationVerbalizer
Vstemverbal stemVerb Formno match
FVverb-final vowel (Bantu)Bantuno match
VBGverbiageSemantic RoleSemanticAssignmentSystem
CONSverbmarking in SVCs (e.g. in Akan)Akanno match
PASTimvery recent, in the last minute or soTenseno match
VIALvialisCaseno match
VIAPNTviapointSpaceno match
VOCvocativeCaseVocativeCase
WweakAgreementno match