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Ga Valence Profile

--Lars Hellan (talk) 10:12, 14 October 2016 (CEST)

The resources

We here describe Verb resources for Ga, to some extent corresponding to the English VerbNet, although on a much smaller scale. Based on a general-purpose dictionary of Ga, a detailed refinement of the description of the valency of its verbs has been made, coded in a formalism specifically designed for facilitating possible sub-classifications of the information, both for standard presentation and for digital applications, some of them online. These facilities allow for the investigation of a range of possible patterns in the area of verb valency, verb syntax and semantics, and for the hypothesizing of further factors. Given a consistent deployment of the same or a comparable descriptive framework for other languages, the methodology opens for cross-linguistic studies in the areas mentioned as well.

A monograph, authored by Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu, going through most of the verb types in Ga is found here: Ga_verb_dictionary (the monograph is not yet completed).

A version of this work formatted for digital processing, prepared by Tore Bruland, is found here: Ga_verb_dictionary_for_digital_processing

The work uses a valency code called Construction Labeling (CL). An introduction to this code is given in Verbconstructions cross-linguistically - Introduction, and the wiki page Ga annotated corpus illustrates it for a number of sentences in Ga..

Below are presented some views of the resource:

First is provided a set of files where construction/valency frames are ordered according to the Situation Type expressed; English glosses and examples are found in Ga_verb_dictionary_for_digital_processing. (A possible application of this sorting will be the construction of valency classes for Ga.)

ABSENT   Download file    ACQUISITION   Download file    CARETAKING   Download file      CAUSATIVE   Download file    
CAUSED   Download file    CLOSING   Download file     COGNITION  Download file    COMMUNICATION  Download file    
COMPARISON   Download file    COMPLETEDMONODEVMNT  Download file    CONTACT   Download file    CREATION   Download file  
CUTTING   Download file    EJECTION   Download file    EMOTION   Download file      EXPERIENCING   Download file    
INCHOATION   Download file    MAINTAINPOSITION   Download file     MOTION   Download file    MOTIONDIRECTED   Download file    
PHENOM   Download file    PLACEMENT   Download file    POSTURE  Download file    PROPERTY   Download file 
PSYCHSTATE   Download file    REMOVAL   Download file    SENSATION  Download file      STATE   Download file    
TRANSFER   Download file    USINGVEHICLE   Download file   
The files are all assembled in Ga-lex-files   Download zip-file


The following zip-file

Ga-valency-types-and-features   Download zip-file   

contains all the frames sorted according to their valency type, expressed in terms of major valency categories such as

intr, intrComp, intrVid, tr, trComp,trObl,  trVid, ditr, ditrComp, ditrVid, ev, sv,, 

and construction specific features such as

suPossp, obPossp meaning that subj/obj has a standard possessor-possessee structure;
suPostp, obPostp meaning that subj/obj is a post-position phrase, here analyzed as possessor 
followed by a relational noun;
suBPspec, obBPspec means that the head of the subj/obj expresses a bodypart of the possessor.
and others.



The following zip-file

"Ga Valency classes"    Download zip-file  

contains putative Valency classes, each class formally identified as a set of verbs which share the same valency frame potential, partitioning a class of 470 verbs, and with the following frame types as discriminants:

intr, intrComp, intrVid, tr, trComp,trObl,  trVid, ditr, ditrComp, ditrVid, ev, sv,

Examples of such classes are:

Verbs that occur in intransitive frame only. (51 verbs)
Verbs that occur in transitive frame only. (144 verbs)
Verbs that occur in ditransitive frame only. (4 verbs)
Verbs that occur in intransitive and transitive frame only. (44 verbs)
Verbs that occur in transitive and ditransitive frame only. (9 verbs)
Verbs that occur in intransitive, transitive and ditransitive frame only. (6 verbs)
Verbs that occur in extended verb complex frame only. (15 verbs)
Verbs that occur in serial verb frame only. (20 verbs)
Verbs that occur in transitive and serial verb frame only. (15 verbs)
Verbs that occur in intransitive, transitive and serial verb frame only. (14 verbs)

A compact exemplification of frame types

The list of templates below gives an indication of the array of valency frames in Ga.

Some of the types in the list are exemplified by annotated sentences in the text collection http://typecraft.org/TCEditor/16/. A wiki display of these examples is available at Ga annotated corpus. To see a specific type exemplified in the database, go to 'TypeCraft Search' under the triple-horisontal bar in the top left corner, find the following path (you can create a new tab for this):

Phrase search -> Phrase level -> Phrase description

glue the valence type label into the slot 'Phrase description', and push 'Search'.

Intransitive

v-intr-suAg-COMMUNICATION
v-intr-suAgmover-MOTION	
v-intr-suTh-PHENOM	
v-intr-suTh-PROPTY_ASCR		
v_aor-intr-suTh-STATE
v_aor-intr-suTh-PROPTY_ESTABD
v_hab-intr-suTh-PROPTY_GEN
v_perf-intr-suTh-PROPTY_ESTABD
v_perf-intr-suAff-ENDSTATE
v_perf-intr-suExp-PSYCHSTATE
v_prog-intr-suTh-PROPTY_DYN
v_aor-intr-suPossp_suBPspec-suTh-EMOTION
v-intr-suPossp_suBPspec-suAg-PSYCHSTATE 
v-intr-suPostp-suLocus-PROPTY_ASCR
v_hab-intr-suPostp-suLocus-PROPTY
v_perf-intr-suPostp-suLocus-PROPTY_ESTABD	
v_perf-intr-suPostp_suUnif-suLocus-PROPTY_ESTABD
v-intr-suPostpSpecPossp_suSpecBPspec-suLocus-PROPTY
v-intrComp-compDECLbare_suIDcompSu-suAg_obThsit-ABILITY	
v-intrComp-compIRRcmp_suIDcompSu-suAg-MOTION_DIR			
v-intrComp-compIRRcmp_suIDcompSu-suAgintent-ABILITY
v-intrImpersComp-suExpl_compDECLcmp-NEED
v_perf-intrScpr-scResIncrm_scAdj-suTh-PROPTY_ESTABD
v-intrScpr-scAdj-suAg-PROPTY_DYN  
v-intrScpr-scAdj-suLocus-PROPTY
v-intrScpr-scAdv-suAg-PROPTY 
v-intrScpr-scAdj-suAg-PROPTY_ESTABD 
v_perf-intrScpr-suPostp_scResIncrm_scAdj-suLocus-PROPTY_ESTABD 
v-intrVid-suTh_vidObTrgt-COMPARISON_COMPARATIVE	
v-intrVid-suTh_vidObTrgt-COMPARISON_EQUATIVE	
v-intrScprVid-scAdj_vidObPostp-suTh_vidObLoc-PROPTY

Transitive

v-tr-suAg_obMover-EJECTION	
v-tr-suAg_obLoc-MAINTAINPOSITION	
v-tr-suAgmover_obEndpt-MOTION_DIRECTED
v-tr-suAg_obTh-ASKING		
v-tr-suEff_obExp-EXPER	 
v_prog-tr-suEff_obIncraff-EXPER	 
v-tr-suExper_obLoc-COGNITION
v-tr-suPoss_obThAbst-PROPTY	
v-tr-suPossAbst_obLoc-PROPTY	
v-tr-suSens_obPercpt-PERCPT	
v-tr-suTh_obLoc-REDUCTION
v-tr-suIDobSpec_obPossp_obBPspec-suAg_obAff-PSYCHSTATE	
v-tr-suIDobSpec_obPostp-suAg_obLoc-WASHING
v-tr-suIDobSpecSpec_obPostp_obSpecPostp-suAg_obLocus-COLLECT	
v-tr-suPossp_suBPSpec_obIDsuSpec-suLocus_obExp-EXPER	
v-tr-suPostp-suLocus_obThAbst-PROPTY
v-tr-suPostp-suLocus_obEndpt-PROPTY_DYN
v-tr-suPostp_obIDsuSpec-suLocus_obExp-EXPER
v-tr-suPostp_obPostp-suActivated_obThloc-SUCCESS
v-tr-suPostp_obUnif-suLocus_obEndstate-PROPTY_ESTABD
v-tr-suSpecIDobSpec_suBPspec-suTh_obEndpt-PSYCHSTATE
v-tr-obBPsu-suPoss_obTh-PROPTY	
v-tr-obPostp-suAg_obTh-CARETAKING		
v-tr-obPostp-suAg-obLocus-CONTINUATION
v-tr-obPostp-suAgmover_obEndpt-MOTION_DIRECTED		
v-tr-obPostp-suAgsens_obLocus-COGNITION
v-tr-obPostp-suAgeff_obLocus-
v-tr-obPostp-suEff_obLocus-EXPER	
v-tr-obPostp-suSens_obLocus-PERCPT  
v-tr-obPostp-suStartpt_obLoc-COMPARISON_EQUATIVE
v-tr-obPostp-suTh_obLocus-DEPEND	
v_hab-trLght-obUnif-suAg_obThAbst-PROPTY_GEN
v-tr-obUnif-suAgsens_obLocus-PERCPT	
v-tr-obSpecPostp-suSens_obPercpt-PERCPT
v-tr_obDECLcmp-suSens_obPercsit-PERCPT	
v-tr-obIRRcmp-suAgintent_obThsit-INTENT
v-tr-obIRRbare-suAgintent_obThsit-INTENT
v-tr-suIDobSu_obNomvL-suAg_obThsit-INCHOATIVE  
v-tr-suIDobSu_obNomvL-suAg_obThsit-STOPPING
v-tr-suIDobSu_obNomvL-suAg_obThsit-DOFREQUENTLY
v-tr-suPossp_suSpecIDob-suEff_obSens-EXPERIENCE
v-tr-obPostp_obSpecNomvL-suAg_obLocsit-CONTINUATION
v-tr-obPostp-suAg_obLoc-MAINTAINPOSITION	
v-tr-obPostp-suAg_obLocus-COMMUNICATION	
v-tr-obIRRbare-suAgintent_obThsit-PERMISSION	
v-tr-obNomvL-suAg_obThsit-CONTINUATION
v-trAdv-suTh_obEndpt-IMPRECATION
v-trExpn-suObIDexpSuOb_expnIRRbare-suAg_obTh-ACHVMNT		
v-trComp-obPostp_compDECLcmp-suAg_obLocus-COMMUNICATION
v-trExpn-obIDexpnSu_expnDECLcmp-suSens_obTh-PERCPT
v-trImpers-suExpl-obAff
v_HAB-trImpersComp-suExpl_obNomvL	
v-trVid-suAg_obAffincrem_vidObTrgt-COMPARISON_COMPARATIVE	
v-trVid-vidObBPspec-suAg_obTh_vidObLoc-ACQUISITION
v-trVid-obPostp_vidObBPspec-suAg_obTop_vidObLoc-ASKING_ABOUT
v-trVid-obPostp_obSpecIDvidObSpec-suAg_obLocus_vidObLoc-EXPER	 
v-trVid-vidObPostp-suMover_obEndpt_vidObLocus-CHANGE_STATUS
v-trVid-vidObPostp-suExper_obLoc_vidObStartpt-CONSCIOUSNESS
v-trVid-obUnif-suAg_obTh_vidObLoc-ASSUME_LOCATION	

Ditransitive

v-ditr-suAg_obTrgt_ob2Content-COMMUNICATION 	
v-ditr-suAg_iobRec_obTh-TRANSFER	
v-ditr-suAg_obTrgt_ob2Loc-COMMUNICATION	
v-ditr-suAg_iobTrgt_obThmover-COMMUNICATION
v-ditr-suAg_obAff_ob2Instr-CUTTING
v-ditr-suAg_obLoc_ob2Res-CUTTING
v_hab-ditr-suNrg_ob2DECLcmp-obSens_ob2Thsit-COGNITION	
v-ditr-obPostp-suAg_obEndpt_ob2Th-PLACEMENT		
v-ditr-obPostp-suAg_obLocus_ob2Instr-CARETAKING		
v-ditr-obPostp-suAg_obLocus-ob2Thmover-REMOVAL
v-ditr-obPostp_ob2DECLcmp-suAg_obLoc_ob2Thsit-COGNITION	
v-ditr-obUnif-suAgsens_iobTrgt_obTh-PERCPT  
v-ditr-obUnif-suAgsens_iobTrgt_obContent-EMOTION_DIRECTED	
v-ditr-ob2Unif-suIDobSpec_obPostp-suAgsens_ob2Locus_obTh-PERCPT
v-ditrVid-suIDob2SpecSpec_obIDvidObSpec_ob2SpecPostp-suAg_obTrgt-ob2Th-vidObLoc-REMOV		

Copula

v-copN-PROPTY

Extended Verb Complex

ev_suAg-pv1tr-pv1obEventunit-vtr-obPostp-obLocus-CONTINUATION
ev_suAg-pv1tr-obStartpt-vintr-DEPARTURE
ev_suAg-pv1tr-pv1obTh-vtr-suIDobSpec_obPostp-obLoc-POSSESSION	      
ev_suAg-pv1tr-pv1obInstr-vditr-iobBen_obPercpt-EXHIBITOBJ		      
ev_suExper-pv1tr-pv1obExpl-vtr-obEndpt-EXPERIENCE
ev_suAg-pv1tr-pv1obPro-pv1obInstrsit-vtr-obPostp-obLocus-CARETAKING  
ev_suAg-pv1tr-pv1obNomvL-pv1obThsit-vtr-vobEndpt-FINISH	
ev_suAg-pv1tr-pv1obPossp_pv1obBPspec_pv1suIDpv1obSpec-pv1obTh-vtr-obPostp-obLoc-
ev_suAg-pv1tr-pv1obPostp_obNrg-vtr-obTrgt
ev_suAg-pv1tr-pv1obPro- pv1obThsit-vtr-obPostp_suIDobSpec-obLocus-
ev_suAg-pv1tr-pv1obTh-vtr-obEndpt-COVER  
ev_suAg-pv1tr-pv1obTh-vtr-obPostp-obEndpt-COVER  

Serial Verb Construction

sv_suAspID_suTh-v1intr-v2intr-v2suClit-
sv-suAspID_suAg-v1tr-v1obTh-v2tr-v2suClit-v2obEndpnt-PLACEMENT	
sv_suAspID_suAg-v1intr- v2tr-v2suClit-v2obBen-HELP		
sv_suAspID_suAg-v1tr-v1obTh-v2tr-v2suClit-v2obEndpt-EJECTION_DIRECTED
sv_suAspID_suAg-v1tr-v1obTh-v2tr-v2suClit-v2obBen-PERMISSION
sv_suAspID_suAg-v1tr-obThAbst-v2_ev-pvtr-pvobPro-pvobThsit-vtr-obBen
sv_suAspID_suAg-v1tr-v1obPostp_v1suIDobSpec-v1obLocus-v2tr-v2suClit-v2obTrgt-DISPLAY
sv_suAspID_suAg-v1tr-v1obTh-v2_ev2_suAspID-pv1tr-pv1obThsit-pv2intr-v2tr-v2iobRec-
sv_suAspID-suAg-v1tr-v1obEndpt-v2_ev2-pv1tr-pv1obThsit-v2tr-v2iobBen-REPRESENT
sv_suObAspID_suAg-v1tr-v1obThmover-v2tr-v2suClit_v2obPro-v2obThmover-EJECTION     
sv_suObAspID_suAg-v1tr-v1obContent-v2ditr-v2suClit_v2obPro-v2obThmover_v2ob2Endpt-
sv_suAspID_suAg_v1obSpecIDv2ob-v1tr-v1obPostp-v1obLocus-v2ditr-v2obPro-v2iobRec-v2obTh

For the corresponding Norwegian valence profile, see Valence Profile Norwegian, and for a valence profile for Kistaninya, see Valence Profile Kistaninya. A profile for English is found at Valence Profile English.