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Valence Profile English

LIST OF ENGLISH VERB CONSTRUCTION TYPES

Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu and Lars Hellan

This list is built on the system explained at Verbconstructions cross-linguistically - Introduction, and partly modeled on the Norwegian list presented in Norwegian Appendix



Intransitive

TEMPLATE NOTATION                                            ENGLISH EXAMPLE
v-intr│suAg│ACTIVITY                                         the boy jumps
v-intr│suAg│SEMELFACTIVE                                     the boy jumps
v-intr│suAg│COMPLETEDMONODEVMNT                              Jack ate					
v-intr│suSens│PROTR-SENSATION                                the boy listens				
v-intr│suTh│PROCESS                                          the ice melts
v-intr│suTh│SUSTAINEDPHENOM                                  the rain continued
v-intr│suThmover│MOTION                                      the ball rolls 				
v-intr-suAbsGer│suThsit│ASSESS                               getting money for political favours stinks
v-intr-suNrg│PHENOM                                          it rains				
v-intrAdv│suAg│ACHIEVEMENT                                   he functions well
v-intrAdv│suTh│PROPTY                                        the machine functions well
v-intrObl│suAg_oblInstr│ACTIVITY                             Jane wrote with a pen
v-intrObl│suAg_oblTrgt│ACTIVITY                              Jane wrote to John
v-intrObl-oblEndpt│suAgmover│MOTIONDIRECTED                  John walked into the room
v-intrObl│suExp_oblCsr│EMOTIONCAUSED                         they grieved over the death
v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│PHENOM                                 stars appear in the heavens
v-intrObl-oblEqSuGer│suAg_oblContent│ASSESS                  Jane believes in speaking her mind
v-intrObl│suPurelyorient_oblTrgt│ORIENT                      the arrow points to the north 	
v-intrObl│suPath_oblTrgt│PATHCONSTELLATION                   the road goes towards the north
v-intrAdvPath│suLocomoevent│LOCOMODEVELOPMENT                the tour goes northwards 		
v-intrAdvPresent-suExpn│suThmover│MOTIONPRESENTED            there goes the ball
v-intrComp│suCog_compThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE             Kathy thought I would come	
v-intrComp-compYN│suCog_compThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE      Kathy wonders whether I will come
v-intrComp-compWH│suCog_compThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE      Kathy wonders who will come
v-intrExlnk-ExlnkDECL                                        it appears that he will come 
v-intrExpn-expnAbsinf│ASSESS                                 it helps to sit down 		
v-intrExpn-expnDECL_suNrg│PHENOM                             it happens that the earth is round	
v-intrExpn-expnEquat│ASSESS                                  it looks as if he did it	
v-intrExpn-expnWH_suNrg                                      it is a question who comes
v-intrExpn-expnYN                                            it is a question whether he can do it
v-intrImplMotion│suPath│CROSSINGPATHS                        their paths crossed
v-intrObRais-suNrg_obRaisInf│obThsit│EXHIBACT                he appears to come
v-intrObl│suAg_oblAffincrem│NONCOMPLETED_MONODEVMNT          she nibbles at the apple
v-intrObl│suAg_oblLoc│LOCATION                               she lives in London
v-intrObl│suAg_oblTopic│ACTIVITY-COMMUNICATION               I talk about Jane
v-intrObl│suAg_oblTrgt│EMISSION                              he vomited on the tablecloth
v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│INCHOATIONLOCATED                      a crack appears in the glass
v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│LOCATION                               Boston is in Massachusetts
v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│LOCATION                               the town lies in the valley
v-intrObl│suTh_oblPoss│POSSESSION                            the book belongs to Jane
v-intrObl_suWH│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND                          who comes depends on you
v-intrObl-suWH_oblWH│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND                    who comes depends on what you do
v-intrObl-suYN│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND                          whether he comes depends on you
v-intrObl-suYN_oblYN│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND                    whether he comes depends on whether you come
v-intrObl-oblAbsGer│suAg_oblContent│ACTIVITY-ABOUTNESS       they talk about travelling to Mars
v-intrObl-oblDeclNom│suAg_oblContent│ACTIVITY                they talk about it being too late
v-intrObl-oblEqSuInf│suAg_oblContent│ACTIVITY-PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE  he hopes to come 
v-intrObl-oblInf│suAg_oblEventcont│CAUSATION	              we arranged for him to get a visa
v-intrOblExpn-suNrg_expnYN                                   it depends on you whether he will win 
v-intrOblPath│suAgmover_OblEndpt│MOTIONtoENDPT               a man runs to here
v-intrOblScpr-scSuNrg_scInf│oblCog_scThsit│PERCPT            he seems to me to be in a good mood
v-intrPrtcl-suNrg│TELIC-PHENOM                               it clears up
v-intrScPr-scPrAdj│suSens│PROTR-EXPER                        the boy feels cold
v-intrScPr-suBPspec_scPrAdj│suThloc│PARTWHOLEEXPER           my back feels cold
v-intrScPrExpn-ScPrAdj_ExpnDECL                              it is essential that he comes
v-intrPresnt│presTh                                          there lived a man
v-intrPresntLoc│presntAg_advLoc│POSTURELOC                   there sits a man in the chair
v-intrPresnt-suNrg_presntREL│presThsit                       there comes a time when nothing works
v-intrPrtcl│suAg│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY                           Jack keeps on
v-intrPrtcl│suTh│SUSTAINEDPHENOM	                     the rain keeps on
v-intrPrtclGer│suAg│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY                        Jack kept on running
v-intrPrtclObl│suAg_obl│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY                    Jack kept on with his running
v-intrScpr-scAdj│suThmover│EXHIBPROPTY	                     the water runs clear (formerly it didn’t)
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scAdj│EXHIBPROPTY                         the boy seems sick
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scInf                                     he seems to believe it
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scAdj│EXHIBPROPTY                         the boy seems sensible
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scInf│EXHIBPROPTY                         the boy seems to be a leader
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scPP│EXHIBPROPTY                          the boy seems in good shape
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scPredprtcl│EXHIBPROPTY                   the boy appears as a hero in the report
v-intrScpr-scSuArgCsd_scAdv│suTh│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT   the coffee boils away
v-intrScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scAdv│INCREMRESULT                     the cup runs over
v-intrScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scAdv│INCREMRESULT                     the shore eroded away
v-intrScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scPP│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT         the house burned to a cinder
v-intrScpr-suNrg_scEquat│RESULT                              it looks as though he came
v-intrScpr-scAdj│suTh│PROPTYDYN                              the house stands empty
v-intrLghtScpr-scSuNrg_scPredprtcl                           the boy emerged as a suspect 
v-intrLghtScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scAdj│INCREMRESULT                 the company goes broke 
v-intrPrtclScpr-scSuNrg_scAdj│EXHIBPROPTY                    the boy ended up sick
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scPredprtcl│EXHIBPROPTY                   the boy sounds like a parrot
v-intrObl│suAg_oblTrg│COMPARISON	                     the boy runs like a donkey
v-intrWH│PHENOM                                              a time comes when nothing works
v-intrAuxmodComp-compEqBareinf│suAg_compThsit                Jane can paddle
v-intrAuxmodScpr-suDir_scSuNrg_scAdv                         he must go out

Transitive

TEMPLATE NOTATION                                            ENGLISH EXAMPLE
v-tr│suAg_oblAffincrem│MONODEVMNT                            she eats the apple
v-tr│suAg_obAff│CONTACTFORCEFUL                              Jack beats John
v-tr│suAg_obAffincrem│COMPLETED_MONODEVMNT                   Kathy ate the cake
v-tr│suAgmover_obPathobj│MOTIONALONGLINE                     Kathy follows the path
v-tr│suAgmover_obAgmover│MOTIONCROSSPATHS                    the boy crosses the demonstration parade
v-tr│suAgmover_obEndpnt│MOTIONtoENDPT                        Kathy reaches the top
v-tr│suAgmover_obStartpt│MOTIONDIRECTED                      Kathy left the room
v-tr│suAg_obEjct│EJECTION                                    Kathy throws the ball
v-tr│suAg_obEjctinobj│EJECTION                               she shoots plastic bullets
v-tr│suAg_obEventcont│ACTIVITY                               she sang a beautiful song
v-tr│suAg_obExp│EMOTIONCAUSED                                Kathy frightens Jane
v-tr│suAgmover_obLengthcont│MOTIONEXTENDING                  the boy walks two kilometers
v-tr│suAg_obTh│REPRESENTING                                  Kathy mentions Jane
v-tr│suAg_obThincrem│COMPLETED_MONODEVMNT                    Kathy read the book
v-tr│suAg_obThmover│MOTIONCAUSED                             Kathy sends the parcel
v-tr│suAgmover_obViapnt│MOTIONviaVIAPT                       Kathy passes the church
v-tr│suCog_obTh│COGNITION                                    Kathy knows the answer
v-tr│suComitmover_obAgmover│MOTIONPARALLEL                   the boy accompanies the president
v-tr│suExp_obTrgt│EMOTION                                    Jane likes horses
v-tr│suOrientedline_obOrientedline│CROSSINGPATHS             the stroke cuts the line
v-tr│suOrientedline_obOrientedline│PARALLELPATHS             the stroke follows the line
v-tr│suPathobj_obEndpnt│EXTENSIONtoENDPT                     the path reaches the top
v-tr│suPathobj_obViapnt│EXTENSIONviaVIAPT                    the path passes the church
v-tr│suSens_obTh│SENSATION                                   Kathy sees Jane
v-tr│suPoss_obPossd│POSSESSION                               Jack owns a car
v-tr│suTh_obBen│PENDINGSTATE                                 an accident awaits him
v-tr│suTh_obExp│EMOTIONCAUSED                                the book depresses Jane
v-tr│suTh_obLengthcont│EXTENDING                             the track measures 400 meters
v-tr│suTh_obSens│SENSATIONCAUSED                             the stone hurt Jane
v-tr│suTh_obTimecont│LASTING                                 the film lasts 5 hours
v-tr│suTh_obWeightcont│WEIGHING                              the stone weighs 5 kg
v-trImpltransf│suAg_obRec│RENDERINGinPOSITION                he dressed the boy
v-trImpltransfObl│suAg_obTh_oblLoc│RENDERINGinPOSITION       he spilled water on the tablecloth
v-trImpltransfObl-OblRefl│suAg_obTh_oblTrgt│RENDERINGinPOSITION  he spilled water on himself
v-trImpltransf-obRefl│suAg_obPat│RENDERINGinPOSITION         he dressed himself
v-tr-suGer│suEffector_obAff│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE          getting money for political favours disgusts me
v-tr-suAbsger│suThsit_obAff│EXPERIENCECAUSED               getting money for political favours disgusts me
v-tr-suAbsger│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE            building highrises interests Kathy
v-tr-suGer│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE               my coming astonishes Kathy
v-tr-suGer_obDECL│suThsit_obThsit│CAUSATION                  Jane’s coming entails that you must come
v-tr-suGer_obYN│suThsit_obThsit│CAUSATION                    Jane’s coming determines whether you come
v-tr-suWH│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE                who comes interests Kathy
v-tr-suWH_obWH│suThsit_obThsit│CAUSATION                     who comes decides who will win
v-tr-suYN│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE                whether I come interests Kathy
v-tr-obAbsger│suAg_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE             Kathy considers coming
v-tr-obDECL│suAg_obEventcont│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY      we arranged that he got a visa
v-tr-obDECL│suCog_obThsit│COGNITION                          Kathy knows that I came
v-tr-obDECL│suCog_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE              I assume that he is qualified
v-tr-obDECL│suSens_obThsit│SENSATION                         Kathy sees that Jane sleeps
v-tr-obEqInf│suAg_obThsit│ACTIVITY                           Kathy tries to come
v-tr-obRefl│suAg_obAff│AFFECTING                             Kathy washes herself
v-trExpnSu-expnDECL│obCog_expnThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE    it worries me that he hasn’t come
v-trExpnSu-expnCOND│obCog_expnThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE    it will not surprise me if he comes
v-trExpnSu-expnEqInf│obCog_expnSuThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE it pleases me to come
v-trExpnSu│obMeas_expnAbsinf││ASSESS                         it takes two hours to go there
v-trExpnOb-expnCOND│suCog_expnThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE    I will deplore it if you come
v-trExpnOb-expnAbsinf│suAg_expnThsit│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY  we make it impossible to come
v-trNrf-obReflExpl│suAgmover│MOTION                          the boy raised himself
v-trNrfPrt_obReflExpl│suAgmover│MOTIONDIRECTED               the boy pulled himself up			
v-trNrfAdv-obReflExpl│suAg│ACTIVITY                          he behaved himself nicely
v-trNrfObl-obReflExpl_oblEqSuGer│suAg_oblThsit               Jane resigned herself to waiting
v-trNrfPath-obReflExpl│suAgmover│MOTION                      he pushes himself forward
v-trNrfPrtcl-obRefl│suAg│ACTIVITY                            Kathy messed herself up
v-trNrfScpr-obReflExpl_scSuNrg_scAdj│suAg                    he made himself sick
v-trNrfScpr-obReflExpl_scSuNrg_scAdj│suAg│INCREMENTALRESULT  he shouted himself hoarse
v-trObl│suAg_obTh_oblIntrloc│COMMUNICATION                   he told the news to Kathy
v-trObl-obRefl│suAg_obTh_oblCom│ACHVMNT                      he allied himself with the boy
v-trObl-obRefl_oblBPob│suAg_obAff_oblThloc│PARTWHOLEAFFECTING Jack scratched himself on the back
v-trObl-obReflExpl_oblBPob│suAff_oblThloc│PARTWHOLEAFFECTING Jack cut himself on the knee
v-trObl-oblBPob│suAg_obAff_oblThloc│PARTWHOLEAFFECTING       I kicked Jack in the leg
v-trObl-oblDECL│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT             he told Jack that he had come
v-trObl-oblPP│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT               he told Jack about his coming
v-trObl-oblYN│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT               he asked Jack whether he came
v-trPassinf-EqSuInf│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT         he begged me to be allowed to come
v-trObl-oblInf│suAg_obInterloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT             he begged me to go			
v-trObl-obRefl_oblEqSuGer│suAg_obTh_oblThsit│COMMITMENT      he commits himself to coming
v-trObl-oblPP│suAg_obInterloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT              we tell the children about building houses
v-trOblScpr-scSuNrg_scN│oblCog_scThsit│PERCPT                he seems to me an idiot
v-trOblScpr-scSuNrg_scInf│oblCog_scThsit│PERCPT              he seems to me to be an idiot
v-trPath│suAg_obPurelyorient│ORIENT                          he directs the arrow to the north
v-trPath│suAg_obOrientedline│LINESITUATING                   he draws the line to the left	
v-trPath│suAgmover_obLocomoevent│LOCOMOCONDUCTION            they take the tour to the north
v-trPath│suAgmover_obOrientedline│USINGPATH                  the boy will take the path toward the river
v-trPath│suAgmover_obInstrmover│USINGVEHICLE                 the boy will take the bus to town
v-trPrtcl│suExper_obTh│EXHIBATTITUDE                         Kathy approves of your choice
v-trPrtcl│suCog_obTh│COGNITION                               Kathy found out the answer
v-trPrtcl-obDECLcmp│suCog_obThsit│COGNITION                  Kathy found out that I came
v-trPrtcl-obRefl│suAg_obTh│COMPLETEDACTIVITY                 Kathy cleaned herself up			
v-trPrtcl-obYN-suCog_obThsit-COGNITION                       Kathy found out whether they came
v-trPrtcl-obWH│suCog_obThsit│COGNITION                       Kathy found out who came
v-trScpr-scBareinf│suSens_obThsit│SENSATION                  I saw him run
v-trScpr-obRefl_scSuNrg_scPassinf│suAg_obTrgt│PERMISSION     they let themselves be seen
v-trScpr-scGer│suAg_obTime_scThsit│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY         we spent a week doing it			
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scInf│suCog_scThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE   I assume him to be qualified
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scGer│suSens│SENSATION                      I saw him running	(he was running)
v-trScpr-scEqSuGer│suSens_obTh│SENSATION                     I saw him running	(I was running)
v-trScpr-scObNrg_obRefl_scGer│suSens_obThsit│SENSATION       he felt himself falling			
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scAdj│suCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE           she considers Jack qualified	
v-trScpr-scObNrg_obRefl_scAdj│suCog_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE  she considers herself qualified
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scPredprtcl│suAg_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE  they perceived him as qualified 
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scN│suAg_obThsit│REPRESENT                  she calls Jane a friend		
v-trScpr-scObNrg_obRefl_scN│suAg_obThsit│REPRESENT           she calls herself a friend
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scBareinf│suAg│PERMISSION                   they let the man sing
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scPassInf│suAg│PERMISSION                   they let the song be sung
v-trScpr-scObArgConcurr_scAdj│suAg_obAffincrem│CONCURRSTATE  he drank the coffee cold 
v-trScpr-scObArgConcurr_scPP│suAg_obThvehcl│CONCURRSTATE     he drove the car in good condition	
v-trScpr-scObArgConcurr_scPredprtcl│suAg_obThvehcl│CONCURRSTATE  he drove the car as an airport limousine
v-trScpr-scObArgRes_scAdj│suCsr_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY she pounded the soil flat
v-trScpr-scObNrgRes_scPP│suCsr_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY  she put the house into good condition
v-trScpr-scObNrgRes_scPP│suCsr_scCsd│PLACEMENT               she put the shoes behind the door
v-trScpr-scObArgCsd_scAdv│suAg_obAff_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT   he kicked the ball away
v-trScpr-scObNrgCsd_scAdj│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT   they drank the house dry
v-trScpr-scObNrgCsd_obRefl_scAdj│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT   she ran herself ragged	
v-trScprShft-scObArgCsd_scAdv│suAg_obAff_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  he pushed away the branches
v-trScpr-obDir_obRefl_scObNrgCsd_scAdv│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  he gets himself away	
v-trScpr-obPossp_scObNrgCsd_scAdv│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  he sang his sorrows away 
v-trScprShft-obPossp_scObNrgCsd_scAdv│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  she wiped away her tears

Ditransitive

TEMPLATE NOTATION                                            ENGLISH EXAMPLE
v-ditr│suAg_iobRec_obTh│TRANSFER                             I gave him the book			
v-ditr│suAg_iobBen_obTh│SUSTAINEDSTATE                       he owes her a book
v-trAdv│suThsit_iobAg_advTime│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY              the job took us all day
v-ditr-suAbsger│suThsit_iobBen_obThabst│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  taking walks gives you strength
v-ditr-suGer│suThsit_iobBen_obTh│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT   his singing gives Kathy a headache
v-ditr-suYN│suThsit_iobPrcvr_obTh│ASSESS            whether he comes first will give us our plan of attack
v-ditr-suWH│suThsit_iobPrcvr_obThʧASSESS                     what happens last gives us the plan of attack
v-ditr-iobPP│suAg_obTh_iobRec│TRANSFER                       Jack supplied fruit to the store
v-ditr-iobRefl│suAg_iobBen_obTh│AVAILING                     he gave himself time			
v-ditr-iobRefl│suAg_iobPermissee_obTh│PERMISSION             Kathy allowed herself three cakes		
v-ditr-obDECL│suAg_iobIntrlctr_obThsit│COMMUNICATION         Kathy tells me that he often comes
v-ditr-obEqIobInf│suAg_iobPermissee_obThsit│COMMITMENT       Kathy allows him to come			
v-ditr-obEqSuInf│suAg_iobIntrlctr_obThsit│COMMITMENT         Kathy promises him to come
v-ditr-obPP│suAg_iobRec_obTh│TRANSFER                        Jack supplied us with fruits
v-ditr-obWH│suAg_iobIntrlctr_obThsit│COMMUNICATION           he tells me who comes		
v-ditr-obYN│suAg_iobIntrlctr_obThsit│COMMUNICATION           he tells me whether they come		
v-ditr-iobRefl_obEqIobInf│suAg_iobPermissee_obThsit│COMMITMENT    Kathy allowed herself to come
v-ditr-obEqIobBareinf│suAg_iobInterloc_obThsit│COMMITMENT    Kathy bade him come	
v-ditr-obEqIobBareinf│suAg_iobPermissee_obThsit│PERMISSION   Kathy let him come
v-ditr-suWH_obWH│suThsit_iobPrcvr_obThsit│ASSESS           who comes first does not show us who comes last
v-ditr-suYN_obYN│suThsit_iobPrcvr_obThsit│ASSESS   whether he smiles will show us whether they have a plan
v-ditrComp-cmpDECL│suAg_iobComit_obTh│CONDITIONALTRANSFER     I bet you fifty cents he won’t come	
v-ditrExpnSu-expnEqInf│obMeas│ASSESS                          it took me two hours to get there
v-ditrImpltransf│suCsr_iobAff_obTh│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY    the book cost me ten dollars
v-ditrObl│suAg_iobRec_obTh_oblMeas│TRANSFER                   he sold me the car for fifty dollars
v-ditrObl│suAg_iobRec_obTh_oblTrgt│TRANSFER                   Jack paid Jane fifty dollars for the car
v-ditrObl-iobPP│suAg_obTh_iobRec_oblMeas│TRANSFER             Jack sold the car to Jane for fifty dollars
v-ditrObl-iobPP│suAg_obTh_iobRec_oblTrgt│TRANSFER             Jack paid fifty dollars to Jane for the car

Copula

TEMPLATE NOTATION                                            ENGLISH EXAMPLE
v-copAdj│suExper│SEMELFACTIVE                                Jane is startled
v-copAdj│suTh│PROPTY                                         he is kind			
v-copAdj-suAbsGer│suThsit│ASSESS                             running is healthy
v-copAdj-suDECL│suThsit│ASSESS                               that he came at all is surprising
v-copAdj-suInf│suThsit│ASSESS                                to err is human			
v-copAdj-suWH│suThsit│ASSESS                                 who will comes is uncertain		
v-copAdj-suYN│suThsit│ASSESS                                 whether he comes is uncertain
v-copAdjObl-oblEqSuGer│suAg_oblActivity│HABITUALACTIVITY     Jane is busy (these days) with writing
v-copN│suTh│PROPTY                                           he is a fool		
v-copN-suAbsger│suThsit│ASSESS                               seeing him was a pleasure
v-copN-suDECL│suThsit│ASSESS                                 that he came was a shock		
v-copN-suWH│suThsit│ASSESS                                   who should go is the question		
v-copN-suYN│suThsit│ASSESS                                   whether he will come is a question
v-copPP│suTh│ASSESS                                          the performance was beyond belief
v-copPP│suTh│EXHIBACTIVITY                                   the performance is in progress
v-copPP-suDECL│suThsit│ASSESS                                that he came was beyond our expectations
v-copPP-suWH│suThsit│ASSESS                                  who may perform is under consideration 
v-copPP-suYN│suThsit│ASSESS                                  whether he may perform is under discussion 
v-copPredprtcl│suTh│ASSESS	                              the result was as desired
v-copPredprtcl-suAbsinf│suThsit│ASSESS                       to be there was like a dream 	
v-copPredprtcl-suAbsger│suThsit│ASSESS                       being there was like a dream
v-copPredprtcl-suWH│suThsit│ASSESS                           what he said was off the mark 
v-copExpnAdj-expnDECL│expnThsitɲASSESS                       it is sad that he leaves			
v-copExpnAdj-expnAbsinf│expnThsit│ASSESS                     it is great to be healthy 	
v-copExpnAdj-expnYN│expnThsit╠ASSESS                         it is uncertain whether he comes 		
v-copExpnAdj-expnWH│expnThsit│ASSESS                         it is uncertain who came 	
v-copExpnN-expnAbsinf│expnThsit│ASSESS                       it is a chore to chop wood
v-copExpnN-expnDECL│expnThsit│ASSESS                         it was a disappointment that he failed
v-copExpnN-expnWH│expnThsit│ASSESS                           it is a question who will come 
v-copExpnN-expnYN│expnThsit│ASSESS                           it is a question whether he will come 
v-copExpnNPredprt-expnAbsger│expnThsit│ASSESS                there is an art to eating spaghetti 
v-copExpnPP-expnDECL│expnThsit│ASSESS                        it was in the third round that he lost
v-copExpnPredprtPP-expnDECL│expnThsit│ASSESS                 it is out of the question that he comes
v-copExpnPredprtcl-expnDECL│expnThsit│ASSESS                 it is as well that he knows 
v-copImpersAdjLoc│ASSESS                                     it is nice here 
v-copImpersAdjLoc-locPP│ASSESS                               it is nice in Trondheim 
v-copIdN│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                             this is the man 			
v-copIdAbsinf│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                        the task is to finish it 
v-copIdDECL│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                          the problem is that he likes herring 
v-copIdWH│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                            the problem is who gets it
v-copIdYN│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                            the problem is whether he eats meat 
v-copIdN-suDECL│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                      that he picks up the letter is the signal
v-copIdN-suAbsger│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                    eating it is the last step		
v-copIdAbsinf-suAbsinf│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY            to eat hot dogs is to support the global economy
v-copIdAbsger-suAbsger│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY               eating local food is supporting local culture


Auxiliary verb

With focus on main verb:

axv_intr-av1mod                                              he can come
axv_intr-vPart│PERFECT                                       he has come			
axv-intr-vPart│suAgmover│MOTION                              the boy is running

As a ‘root’ modal:

v-intrAuxmodComp-compEqBareinf-suAg_compThsit                he can come

As an ‘epistemic’ modal:

v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scBareinf                                 he can come