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Valence Profile English

Revision as of 10:40, 12 March 2015 by Lars Hellan (Talk | contribs) (Transitive:)


Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu

This list is built on the Norwegian list included in SLAVOB 6.3


TEMPLATE NOTATION                                            ENGLISH EXAMPLE
v-intr│suAg│ACTIVITY                                         the boy jumps
v-intr│suAg│SEMELFACTIVE                                     the boy jumps
v-intr│suAg│COMPLETEDMONODEVMNT                              Jack ate					
v-intr│suSens│PROTR-SENSATION                                the boy listens				
v-intr│suTh│PROCESS                                          the ice melts
v-intr│suTh│SUSTAINEDPHENOM                                  the rain continued
v-intr│suThmover│MOTION                                      the ball rolls 				
v-intr-suAbsGer│suThsit│ASSESS                               getting money for political favours stinks
v-intr-suNrg│PHENOM                                          it rains				
v-intrAdv│suAg│ACHIEVEMENT                                   he functions well
v-intrAdv│suTh│PROPTY                                        the machine functions well
v-intrObl│suAg_oblInstr│ACTIVITY                             Jane wrote with a pen
v-intrObl│suAg_oblTrgt│ACTIVITY                              Jane wrote to John
v-intrObl-oblEndpt│suAgmover│MOTIONDIRECTED                  John walked into the room
v-intrObl│suExp_oblCsr│EMOTIONCAUSED                         they grieved over the death
v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│PHENOM                                 stars appear in the heavens
v-intrObl-oblEqSuGer│suAg_oblContent│ASSESS                  Jane believes in speaking her mind
v-intrObl│suPurelyorient_oblTrgt│ORIENT                      the arrow points to the north 	
v-intrObl│suPath_oblTrgt│PATHCONSTELLATION                   the road goes towards the north
v-intrAdvPath│suLocomoevent│LOCOMODEVELOPMENT                the tour goes northwards 		
v-intrAdvPresent-suExpn│suThmover│MOTIONPRESENTED            there goes the ball
v-intrComp│suCog_compThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE             Kathy thought I would come	
v-intrComp-compYN│suCog_compThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE      Kathy wonders whether I will come
v-intrComp-compWH│suCog_compThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE      Kathy wonders who will come
v-intrExlnk-ExlnkDECL                                        it appears that he will come 
v-intrExpn-expnAbsinf│ASSESS                                 it helps to sit down 		
v-intrExpn-expnDECL_suNrg│PHENOM                             it happens that the earth is round	
v-intrExpn-expnEquat│ASSESS                                  it looks as if he did it	
v-intrExpn-expnWH_suNrg                                      it is a question who comes
v-intrExpn-expnYN                                            it is a question whether he can do it
v-intrImplMotion│suPath│CROSSINGPATHS                        their paths crossed
v-intrObRais-suNrg_obRaisInf│obThsit│EXHIBACT                he appears to come
v-intrObl│suAg_oblAffincrem│NONCOMPLETED_MONODEVMNT          she nibbles at the apple
v-intrObl│suAg_oblLoc│LOCATION                               she lives in London
v-intrObl│suAg_oblTopic│ACTIVITY-COMMUNICATION               I talk about Jane
v-intrObl│suAg_oblTrgt│EMISSION                              he vomited on the tablecloth
v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│INCHOATIONLOCATED                      a crack appears in the glass
v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│LOCATION                               Boston is in Massachusetts
v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│LOCATION                               the town lies in the valley
v-intrObl│suTh_oblPoss│POSSESSION                            the book belongs to Jane
v-intrObl_suWH│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND                          who comes depends on you
v-intrObl-suWH_oblWH│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND                    who comes depends on what you do
v-intrObl-suYN│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND                          whether he comes depends on you
v-intrObl-suYN_oblYN│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND                    whether he comes depends on whether you come
v-intrObl-oblAbsGer│suAg_oblContent│ACTIVITY-ABOUTNESS       they talk about travelling to Mars
v-intrObl-oblDeclNom│suAg_oblContent│ACTIVITY                they talk about it being too late
v-intrObl-oblEqSuInf│suAg_oblContent│ACTIVITY-PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE  he hopes to come 
v-intrObl-oblInf│suAg_oblEventcont│CAUSATION	              we arranged for him to get a visa
v-intrOblExpn-suNrg_expnYN                                   it depends on you whether he will win 
v-intrOblPath│suAgmover_OblEndpt│MOTIONtoENDPT               a man runs to here
v-intrOblScpr-scSuNrg_scInf│oblCog_scThsit│PERCPT            he seems to me to be in a good mood
v-intrPrtcl-suNrg│TELIC-PHENOM                               it clears up
v-intrScPr-scPrAdj│suSens│PROTR-EXPER                        the boy feels cold
v-intrScPr-suBPspec_scPrAdj│suThloc│PARTWHOLEEXPER           my back feels cold
v-intrScPrExpn-ScPrAdj_ExpnDECL                              it is essential that he comes
v-intrPresnt│presTh                                          there lived a man
v-intrPresntLoc│presntAg_advLoc│POSTURELOC                   there sits a man in the chair
v-intrPresnt-suNrg_presntREL│presThsit                       there comes a time when nothing works
v-intrPrtcl│suAg│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY                           Jack keeps on
v-intrPrtcl│suTh│SUSTAINEDPHENOM	                      the rain keeps on
v-intrPrtclGer│suAg│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY                        Jack kept on running
v-intrPrtclObl│suAg_obl│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY                    Jack kept on with his running
v-intrScpr-scAdj│suThmover│EXHIBPROPTY	                      the water runs clear (formerly it didn’t)
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scAdj│EXHIBPROPTY                         the boy seems sick
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scInf                                     he seems to believe it
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scAdj│EXHIBPROPTY                         the boy seems sensible
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scInf│EXHIBPROPTY                         the boy seems to be a leader
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scPP│EXHIBPROPTY                          the boy seems in good shape
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scPredprtcl│EXHIBPROPTY                   the boy appears as a hero in the report
v-intrScpr-scSuArgCsd_scAdv│suTh│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT   the coffee boils away
v-intrScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scAdv│INCREMRESULT                     the cup runs over
v-intrScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scAdv│INCREMRESULT                     the shore eroded away
v-intrScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scPP│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT         the house burned to a cinder
v-intrScpr-suNrg_scEquat│RESULT                              it looks as though he came
v-intrScpr-scAdj│suTh│PROPTYDYN                              the house stands empty
v-intrLghtScpr-scSuNrg_scPredprtcl                           the boy emerged as a suspect 
v-intrLghtScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scAdj│INCREMRESULT                 the company goes broke 
v-intrPrtclScpr-scSuNrg_scAdj│EXHIBPROPTY                    the boy ended up sick
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scPredprtcl│EXHIBPROPTY                   the boy sounds like a parrot
v-intrObl│suAg_oblTrg│COMPARISON	                      the boy runs like a donkey
v-intrWH│PHENOM                                              a time comes when nothing works
v-intrAuxmodComp-compEqBareinf│suAg_compThsit                Jane can paddle
v-intrAuxmodScpr-suDir_scSuNrg_scAdv                         he must go out


TEMPLATE NOTATION                                            ENGLISH EXAMPLE
v-tr│suAg_oblAffincrem│MONODEVMNT                            she eats the apple
v-tr│suAg_obAff│CONTACTFORCEFUL                              Jack beats John
v-tr│suAg_obAffincrem│COMPLETED_MONODEVMNT                   Kathy ate the cake
v-tr│suAgmover_obPathobj│MOTIONALONGLINE                     Kathy follows the path
v-tr│suAgmover_obAgmover│MOTIONCROSSPATHS                    the boy crosses the demonstration parade
v-tr│suAgmover_obEndpnt│MOTIONtoENDPT                        Kathy reaches the top
v-tr│suAgmover_obStartpt│MOTIONDIRECTED                      Kathy left the room
v-tr│suAg_obEjct│EJECTION                                    Kathy throws the ball
v-tr│suAg_obEjctinobj│EJECTION                               she shoots plastic bullets
v-tr│suAg_obEventcont│ACTIVITY                               she sang a beautiful song
v-tr│suAg_obExp│EMOTIONCAUSED                                Kathy frightens Jane
v-tr│suAgmover_obLengthcont│MOTIONEXTENDING                  the boy walks two kilometers
v-tr│suAg_obTh│REPRESENTING                                  Kathy mentions Jane
v-tr│suAg_obThincrem│COMPLETED_MONODEVMNT                    Kathy read the book
v-tr│suAg_obThmover│MOTIONCAUSED                             Kathy sends the parcel
v-tr│suAgmover_obViapnt│MOTIONviaVIAPT                       Kathy passes the church
v-tr│suCog_obTh│COGNITION                                    Kathy knows the answer
v-tr│suComitmover_obAgmover│MOTIONPARALLEL                   the boy accompanies the president
v-tr│suExp_obTrgt│EMOTION                                    Jane likes horses
v-tr│suOrientedline_obOrientedline│CROSSINGPATHS             the stroke cuts the line
v-tr│suOrientedline_obOrientedline│PARALLELPATHS             the stroke follows the line
v-tr│suPathobj_obEndpnt│EXTENSIONtoENDPT                     the path reaches the top
v-tr│suPathobj_obViapnt│EXTENSIONviaVIAPT                    the path passes the church
v-tr│suSens_obTh│SENSATION                                   Kathy sees Jane
v-tr│suPoss_obPossd│POSSESSION                               Jack owns a car
v-tr│suTh_obBen│PENDINGSTATE                                 an accident awaits him
v-tr│suTh_obExp│EMOTIONCAUSED                                the book depresses Jane
v-tr│suTh_obLengthcont│EXTENDING                             the track measures 400 meters
v-tr│suTh_obSens│SENSATIONCAUSED                             the stone hurt Jane
v-tr│suTh_obTimecont│LASTING                                 the film lasts 5 hours
v-tr│suTh_obWeightcont│WEIGHING                              the stone weighs 5 kg
v-trImpltransf│suAg_obRec│RENDERINGinPOSITION                he dressed the boy
v-trImpltransfObl│suAg_obTh_oblLoc│RENDERINGinPOSITION       he spilled water on the tablecloth
v-trImpltransfObl-OblRefl│suAg_obTh_oblTrgt│RENDERINGinPOSITION  he spilled water on himself
v-trImpltransf-obRefl│suAg_obPat│RENDERINGinPOSITION         he dressed himself
v-tr-suGer│suEffector_obAff│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE          getting money for political favours disgusts me
v-tr-suAbsger│suThsit_obAff│EXPERIENCECAUSED               getting money for political favours disgusts me
v-tr-suAbsger│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE            building highrises interests Kathy
v-tr-suGer│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE               my coming astonishes Kathy
v-tr-suGer_obDECL│suThsit_obThsit│CAUSATION                  Jane’s coming entails that you must come
v-tr-suGer_obYN│suThsit_obThsit│CAUSATION                    Jane’s coming determines whether you come
v-tr-suWH│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE                who comes interests Kathy
v-tr-suWH_obWH│suThsit_obThsit│CAUSATION                     who comes decides who will win
v-tr-suYN│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE                whether I come interests Kathy
v-tr-obAbsger│suAg_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE             Kathy considers coming
v-tr-obDECL│suAg_obEventcont│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY      we arranged that he got a visa
v-tr-obDECL│suCog_obThsit│COGNITION                          Kathy knows that I came
v-tr-obDECL│suCog_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE              I assume that he is qualified
v-tr-obDECL│suSens_obThsit│SENSATION                         Kathy sees that Jane sleeps
v-tr-obEqInf│suAg_obThsit│ACTIVITY                           Kathy tries to come
v-tr-obRefl│suAg_obAff│AFFECTING                             Kathy washes herself
v-trExpnSu-expnDECL│obCog_expnThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE    it worries me that he hasn’t come
v-trExpnSu-expnCOND│obCog_expnThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE    it will not surprise me if he comes
v-trExpnSu-expnEqInf│obCog_expnSuThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE it pleases me to come
v-trExpnSu│obMeas_expnAbsinf││ASSESS                         it takes two hours to go there
v-trExpnOb-expnCOND│suCog_expnThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE    I will deplore it if you come
v-trExpnOb-expnAbsinf│suAg_expnThsit│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY  we make it impossible to come
v-trNrf-obReflExpl│suAgmover│MOTION                          the boy raised himself
v-trNrfPrt_obReflExpl│suAgmover│MOTIONDIRECTED               the boy pulled himself up			
v-trNrfAdv-obReflExpl│suAg│ACTIVITY                          he behaved himself nicely
v-trNrfObl-obReflExpl_oblEqSuGer│suAg_oblThsit               Jane resigned herself to waiting
v-trNrfPath-obReflExpl│suAgmover│MOTION                      he pushes himself forward
v-trNrfPrtcl-obRefl│suAg│ACTIVITY                            Kathy messed herself up
v-trNrfScpr-obReflExpl_scSuNrg_scAdj│suAg                    he made himself sick
v-trNrfScpr-obReflExpl_scSuNrg_scAdj│suAg│INCREMENTALRESULT  he shouted himself hoarse
v-trObl│suAg_obTh_oblIntrloc│COMMUNICATION                   he told the news to Kathy
v-trObl-obRefl│suAg_obTh_oblCom│ACHVMNT                      he allied himself with the boy
v-trObl-obRefl_oblBPob│suAg_obAff_oblThloc│PARTWHOLEAFFECTING Jack scratched himself on the back
v-trObl-obReflExpl_oblBPob│suAff_oblThloc│PARTWHOLEAFFECTING Jack cut himself on the knee
v-trObl-oblBPob│suAg_obAff_oblThloc│PARTWHOLEAFFECTING       I kicked Jack in the leg
v-trObl-oblDECL│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT             he told Jack that he had come
v-trObl-oblPP│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT               he told Jack about his coming
v-trObl-oblYN│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT               he asked Jack whether he came
v-trPassinf-EqSuInf│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT         he begged me to be allowed to come
v-trObl-oblInf│suAg_obInterloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT             he begged me to go			
v-trObl-obRefl_oblEqSuGer│suAg_obTh_oblThsit│COMMITMENT      he commits himself to coming
v-trObl-oblPP│suAg_obInterloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT              we tell the children about building houses
v-trOblScpr-scSuNrg_scN│oblCog_scThsit│PERCPT                he seems to me an idiot
v-trOblScpr-scSuNrg_scInf│oblCog_scThsit│PERCPT              he seems to me to be an idiot
v-trPath│suAg_obPurelyorient│ORIENT                          he directs the arrow to the north
v-trPath│suAg_obOrientedline│LINESITUATING                   he draws the line to the left	
v-trPath│suAgmover_obLocomoevent│LOCOMOCONDUCTION            they take the tour to the north
v-trPath│suAgmover_obOrientedline│USINGPATH                  the boy will take the path toward the river
v-trPath│suAgmover_obInstrmover│USINGVEHICLE                 the boy will take the bus to town
v-trPrtcl│suExper_obTh│EXHIBATTITUDE                         Kathy approves of your choice
v-trPrtcl│suCog_obTh│COGNITION                               Kathy found out the answer
v-trPrtcl-obDECLcmp│suCog_obThsit│COGNITION                  Kathy found out that I came
v-trPrtcl-obRefl│suAg_obTh│COMPLETEDACTIVITY                 Kathy cleaned herself up			
v-trPrtcl-obYN-suCog_obThsit-COGNITION                       Kathy found out whether they came
v-trPrtcl-obWH│suCog_obThsit│COGNITION                       Kathy found out who came
v-trScpr-scBareinf│suSens_obThsit│SENSATION                  I saw him run
v-trScpr-obRefl_scSuNrg_scPassinf│suAg_obTrgt│PERMISSION     they let themselves be seen
v-trScpr-scGer│suAg_obTime_scThsit│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY         we spent a week doing it			
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scInf│suCog_scThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE   I assume him to be qualified
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scGer│suSens│SENSATION                      I saw him running	(he was running)
v-trScpr-scEqSuGer│suSens_obTh│SENSATION                     I saw him running	(I was running)
v-trScpr-scObNrg_obRefl_scGer│suSens_obThsit│SENSATION       he felt himself falling			
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scAdj│suCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE           she considers Jack qualified	
v-trScpr-scObNrg_obRefl_scAdj│suCog_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE  she considers herself qualified
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scPredprtcl│suAg_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE  they perceived him as qualified 
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scN│suAg_obThsit│REPRESENT                  she calls Jane a friend		
v-trScpr-scObNrg_obRefl_scN│suAg_obThsit│REPRESENT           she calls herself a friend
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scBareinf│suAg│PERMISSION                   they let the man sing
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scPassInf│suAg│PERMISSION                   they let the song be sung
v-trScpr-scObArgConcurr_scAdj│suAg_obAffincrem│CONCURRSTATE  he drank the coffee cold 
v-trScpr-scObArgConcurr_scPP│suAg_obThvehcl│CONCURRSTATE     he drove the car in good condition	
v-trScpr-scObArgConcurr_scPredprtcl│suAg_obThvehcl│CONCURRSTATE  he drove the car as an airport limousine
v-trScpr-scObArgRes_scAdj│suCsr_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY she pounded the soil flat
v-trScpr-scObNrgRes_scPP│suCsr_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY  she put the house into good condition
v-trScpr-scObNrgRes_scPP│suCsr_scCsd│PLACEMENT               she put the shoes behind the door
v-trScpr-scObArgCsd_scAdv│suAg_obAff_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT   he kicked the ball away
v-trScpr-scObNrgCsd_scAdj│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT   they drank the house dry
v-trScpr-scObNrgCsd_obRefl_scAdj│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT   she ran herself ragged	
v-trScprShft-scObArgCsd_scAdv│suAg_obAff_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  he pushed away the branches
v-trScpr-obDir_obRefl_scObNrgCsd_scAdv│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  he gets himself away	
v-trScpr-obPossp_scObNrgCsd_scAdv│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  he sang his sorrows away 
v-trScprShft-obPossp_scObNrgCsd_scAdv│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  she wiped away her tears

== Ditransitive: == (to be edited)

TEMPLATE NOTATION                                            ENGLISH EXAMPLE

I gave him the book I give-PAST him DEF book


he owes her a book PRON.3SG owe-3SG.PRES DET book


the job took us all day


taking walks gives you strength take-GER walks give-3SG.PRES PRON.2 strength


his singing gives Kathy a headache PRON.POSS.3SG sing-GER give-3SG.PRES K DET headache


whether he comes first will give us our plan of attack whether PRON.3SG come-3SG.PRES first FUT show PRON.1PL plan of attack


what happens last gives us the plan of attack WH happen-3SG.PRES last give-3SG.PRES PRON.1PL DEF plan of attack


Jack supplied fruit to the store


he gave himself time he give-PAST REFL time


Kathy allowed herself three cakes K allow-PAST REFL three cakes


Kathy tells me that he often comes K tell-3SG.PRES PRON.1SG COMP PRON.3SG often come-PRES


Kathy allows him to come K. allow-3SG.PRES PRON.3SG INF come


Kathy promises him to come K. promise-3SG.PRES PRON.3SG INF come


Jack supplied us with fruits


he tells me who comes PRON.3SG tell-3SG.PRES PRON.1SG WH come-3SG.PRES


he tells me whether they come PRON.3SG tell-3SG.PRES PRON.1PL whether they come


Kathy allowed herself to come K. allow-3SG.PRES REFL INF come


Kathy bade him come K bid-3SG.PAST PRON.3SG come


Kathy let him come K let PRON.3SG come


who comes first does not show us who comes last WH come-3SG.PRES first do-NEG show PRON.1PL WH come-3SG.PRES last


whether he comes first will show us whether they have a plan YN PRON.3SG come-3SG.PRES FUT show PRON.1PL WH PRON.3PL have DET plan

v-ditrComp-cmpDECL│suAg_iobC  omit_obTh│CONDITIONALTRANSFER

I bet you fifty cents he won’t come PRON.1SG bet-PRES fifty cents PRON.3SG FUT.NEG come


it took me two hours to get there PRON.EXPL take-PAST PRON.1SG two hours INF get there


The book cost me ten dollars


Jack sold me the car for fifty dollars J sell-PAST PRON.1SG DEF car for 50 dollars


Jack paid Jane fifty dollars for the car


Jack sold the car to Jane for fifty dollars J sell-PAST DEF car to J for fifty dollars


Jack paid fifty dollars to Jane for the car


TEMPLATE NOTATION                                            ENGLISH EXAMPLE

Jane is startled

Jane be.SG.PRES startled 

he is kind he be-PRES kind


getting money for political favours is disgusting get-GER money PREP political favours be-PRES disgusting running is healthy run-GER be-3SG.PRES healthy


that he came at all is surprising COMP PRON.3SG at all be-3SG.PRES surprising


to err is human INF err be-3SG.PRES human


who will comes is uncertain WH FUT come be-3SG.PRES uncertain


whether he comes is uncertain WH PRON.3SG come-3SG.PRES be-3SG.PRES uncertain


Jane is busy (these days) with writing Jane busy PREP write-GER


he is a fool PRON.3SG be-3SG.PRES fool


seeing him was a pleasure see-GER PRON.3SG be-3SG.PAST DET pleasure


that he came was a shock COMP PRON.3SG come-PAST be-PAST DET shock


who should go is the question WH AUX go be-3SG.PRES DEF question


whether he will come is a question YN PRON.3SG FUT come be-3SG.PAST DET question


the performance was beyond belief DEF performance be-3SG.PAST beyond belief


The performance is in progress DEF performance be.3SG.PRES in progress


that he came was beyond our expectations COMP PRON.3SG come-PAST be.3SG.PAST PRON.POSS.1PL expectations


who may perform is under consideration WH AUX perform be.3SG.PRES under consideration


whether he may perform is under discussion YN PRON.3SG AUX perform be.3SG.PRES under discussion


The man is like a god DEF man be.3SG.PRES like DET god The result was as desired DEF result be.3SG.PAST as desired


to be there was like a dream INF be there was like a dream


being there was like a dream be-GER there be.3SG.PAST like DET dream


what he said was off the mark WH PRON.3SG say-PAST be.3SG.PAST off DEF mark


it is sad that he leaves PRON.EXPL be.3SG.PRES sad COMP PRON.3SG leaves


it is great to be healthy it is great INF be healthy


it is uncertain whether he comes PRON.EXPL is uncertain whether he comes


it is uncertain who came PRON.EXPL is uncertain who come-PAST


It is a chore to chop wood PRON.EXPL be.3SG.PRES DET chore INF chop wood


it was a disappointment that he failed PRON.EXPL be.PAST DET disappointment COMP PRON.3SG fail-PAST


it is a question who will come PRON.EXPL be DET question WH FUT come


it is a question whether he will come PRON.EXPL be.3SG.PRES DET question YN PRON.3SG FUT come


there is an art to eating spaghetti PRON.EXPL be.3SG.PRES DET art to eat-GER spaghetti


it was in the third round that he lost PRON.EXPL be.PAST in DEF third round COMP PRON.3SG lose-PAST


It is out of the question that he comes PRON.EXPL be.PAST out of DEF question COMP PRON.3SG come-3SG.PRES


it is as well that he knows PRON.EXPL be as well COMP he knows


It is nice here PRON.EXPL be.PRES nice here


It is nice in Trondheim PRON.EXPL be.PRES nice in T


this is the man PRON.DEICT is DEF man


the task is to finish it DEF task be INF finish it


the problem is that he likes herring DEF problem is COMP he likes herring


the problem is who gets it DEF problem is WH gets it


the problem is whether he eats meat DEF problem is YN he eat-PRES meat


that he picks up the letter is the signal COMP PRON.3SG picks up DEF letter be.3SG.PRES DEF signal


eating it is the last step eat-GER it be.PRES DEF last step


to eat hot dogs is to support the global economy INF eat hot dogs be.3SG.PRES is INF support DEF global economy


Eating local food is supporting local culture Eat-GER local fo od be.3SG.PAST support-GER local culture

Auxiliary verbs:


he can come As a ‘root’ modal, this construction can also be represented as v-intrAuxmodComp-compEqBareinf-suAg_compThsit, and as an ‘epistemic’ modal, as v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scBareinf (see above)


he has come 3SG have.PRES come.PRFPART


the boy is running