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LIST OF ENGLISH VERB CONSTRUCTION TYPES
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Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu  and  Lars Hellan
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This list is built on the system explained at [[Verbconstructions cross-linguistically - Introduction]], and partly modeled on the Norwegian list presented in [[Media: ‎3_Norwegian_Appendix_plus_3_SLAVOB-final.pdf|Norwegian Appendix ]]
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== Intransitive ==
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TEMPLATE NOTATION                                            ENGLISH EXAMPLE
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v-intr│suAg│ACTIVITY                                        the boy jumps
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v-intr│suAg│SEMELFACTIVE                                    the boy jumps
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v-intr│suAg│COMPLETEDMONODEVMNT                              Jack ate
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v-intr│suSens│PROTR-SENSATION                                the boy listens
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v-intr│suTh│PROCESS                                          the ice melts
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v-intr│suTh│SUSTAINEDPHENOM                                  the rain continued
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v-intr│suThmover│MOTION                                      the ball rolls
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v-intr-suAbsGer│suThsit│ASSESS                              getting money for political favours stinks
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v-intr-suNrg│PHENOM                                          it rains
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v-intrAdv│suAg│ACHIEVEMENT                                  he functions well
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v-intrAdv│suTh│PROPTY                                        the machine functions well
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v-intrObl│suAg_oblInstr│ACTIVITY                            Jane wrote with a pen
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v-intrObl│suAg_oblTrgt│ACTIVITY                              Jane wrote to John
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v-intrObl-oblEndpt│suAgmover│MOTIONDIRECTED                  John walked into the room
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v-intrObl│suExp_oblCsr│EMOTIONCAUSED                        they grieved over the death
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v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│PHENOM                                stars appear in the heavens
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v-intrObl-oblEqSuGer│suAg_oblContent│ASSESS                  Jane believes in speaking her mind
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v-intrObl│suPurelyorient_oblTrgt│ORIENT                      the arrow points to the north
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v-intrObl│suPath_oblTrgt│PATHCONSTELLATION                  the road goes towards the north
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v-intrAdvPath│suLocomoevent│LOCOMODEVELOPMENT                the tour goes northwards
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v-intrAdvPresent-suExpn│suThmover│MOTIONPRESENTED            there goes the ball
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v-intrComp│suCog_compThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE            Kathy thought I would come
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v-intrComp-compYN│suCog_compThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE      Kathy wonders whether I will come
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v-intrComp-compWH│suCog_compThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE      Kathy wonders who will come
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v-intrExlnk-ExlnkDECL                                        it appears that he will come
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v-intrExpn-expnAbsinf│ASSESS                                it helps to sit down
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v-intrExpn-expnDECL_suNrg│PHENOM                            it happens that the earth is round
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v-intrExpn-expnEquat│ASSESS                                  it looks as if he did it
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v-intrExpn-expnWH_suNrg                                      it is a question who comes
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v-intrExpn-expnYN                                            it is a question whether he can do it
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v-intrImplMotion│suPath│CROSSINGPATHS                        their paths crossed
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v-intrObRais-suNrg_obRaisInf│obThsit│EXHIBACT                he appears to come
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v-intrObl│suAg_oblAffincrem│NONCOMPLETED_MONODEVMNT          she nibbles at the apple
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v-intrObl│suAg_oblLoc│LOCATION                              she lives in London
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v-intrObl│suAg_oblTopic│ACTIVITY-COMMUNICATION              I talk about Jane
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v-intrObl│suAg_oblTrgt│EMISSION                              he vomited on the tablecloth
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v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│INCHOATIONLOCATED                      a crack appears in the glass
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v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│LOCATION                              Boston is in Massachusetts
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v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│LOCATION                              the town lies in the valley
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v-intrObl│suTh_oblPoss│POSSESSION                            the book belongs to Jane
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v-intrObl_suWH│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND                          who comes depends on you
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v-intrObl-suWH_oblWH│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND                    who comes depends on what you do
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v-intrObl-suYN│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND                          whether he comes depends on you
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v-intrObl-suYN_oblYN│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND                    whether he comes depends on whether you come
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v-intrObl-oblAbsGer│suAg_oblContent│ACTIVITY-ABOUTNESS      they talk about travelling to Mars
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v-intrObl-oblDeclNom│suAg_oblContent│ACTIVITY                they talk about it being too late
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v-intrObl-oblEqSuInf│suAg_oblContent│ACTIVITY-PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE  he hopes to come
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v-intrObl-oblInf│suAg_oblEventcont│CAUSATION               we arranged for him to get a visa
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v-intrOblExpn-suNrg_expnYN                                  it depends on you whether he will win
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v-intrOblPath│suAgmover_OblEndpt│MOTIONtoENDPT              a man runs to here
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v-intrOblScpr-scSuNrg_scInf│oblCog_scThsit│PERCPT            he seems to me to be in a good mood
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v-intrPrtcl-suNrg│TELIC-PHENOM                              it clears up
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v-intrScPr-scPrAdj│suSens│PROTR-EXPER                        the boy feels cold
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v-intrScPr-suBPspec_scPrAdj│suThloc│PARTWHOLEEXPER          my back feels cold
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v-intrScPrExpn-ScPrAdj_ExpnDECL                              it is essential that he comes
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v-intrPresnt│presTh                                          there lived a man
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v-intrPresntLoc│presntAg_advLoc│POSTURELOC                  there sits a man in the chair
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v-intrPresnt-suNrg_presntREL│presThsit                      there comes a time when nothing works
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v-intrPrtcl│suAg│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY                          Jack keeps on
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v-intrPrtcl│suTh│SUSTAINEDPHENOM                     the rain keeps on
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v-intrPrtclGer│suAg│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY                        Jack kept on running
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v-intrPrtclObl│suAg_obl│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY                    Jack kept on with his running
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v-intrScpr-scAdj│suThmover│EXHIBPROPTY                     the water runs clear (formerly it didn’t)
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v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scAdj│EXHIBPROPTY                        the boy seems sick
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v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scInf                                    he seems to believe it
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v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scAdj│EXHIBPROPTY                        the boy seems sensible
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v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scInf│EXHIBPROPTY                        the boy seems to be a leader
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v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scPP│EXHIBPROPTY                          the boy seems in good shape
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v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scPredprtcl│EXHIBPROPTY                  the boy appears as a hero in the report
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v-intrScpr-scSuArgCsd_scAdv│suTh│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  the coffee boils away
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v-intrScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scAdv│INCREMRESULT                    the cup runs over
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v-intrScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scAdv│INCREMRESULT                    the shore eroded away
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v-intrScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scPP│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT        the house burned to a cinder
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v-intrScpr-suNrg_scEquat│RESULT                              it looks as though he came
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v-intrScpr-scAdj│suTh│PROPTYDYN                              the house stands empty
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v-intrLghtScpr-scSuNrg_scPredprtcl                          the boy emerged as a suspect
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v-intrLghtScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scAdj│INCREMRESULT                the company goes broke
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v-intrPrtclScpr-scSuNrg_scAdj│EXHIBPROPTY                    the boy ended up sick
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v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scPredprtcl│EXHIBPROPTY                  the boy sounds like a parrot
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v-intrObl│suAg_oblTrg│COMPARISON                     the boy runs like a donkey
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v-intrWH│PHENOM                                              a time comes when nothing works
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v-intrAuxmodComp-compEqBareinf│suAg_compThsit                Jane can paddle
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v-intrAuxmodScpr-suDir_scSuNrg_scAdv                        he must go out
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== Transitive ==
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TEMPLATE NOTATION                                            ENGLISH EXAMPLE
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v-tr│suAg_oblAffincrem│MONODEVMNT                            she eats the apple
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v-tr│suAg_obAff│CONTACTFORCEFUL                              Jack beats John
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v-tr│suAg_obAffincrem│COMPLETED_MONODEVMNT                  Kathy ate the cake
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v-tr│suAgmover_obPathobj│MOTIONALONGLINE                    Kathy follows the path
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v-tr│suAgmover_obAgmover│MOTIONCROSSPATHS                    the boy crosses the demonstration parade
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v-tr│suAgmover_obEndpnt│MOTIONtoENDPT                        Kathy reaches the top
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v-tr│suAgmover_obStartpt│MOTIONDIRECTED                      Kathy left the room
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v-tr│suAg_obEjct│EJECTION                                    Kathy throws the ball
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v-tr│suAg_obEjctinobj│EJECTION                              she shoots plastic bullets
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v-tr│suAg_obEventcont│ACTIVITY                              she sang a beautiful song
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v-tr│suAg_obExp│EMOTIONCAUSED                                Kathy frightens Jane
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v-tr│suAgmover_obLengthcont│MOTIONEXTENDING                  the boy walks two kilometers
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v-tr│suAg_obTh│REPRESENTING                                  Kathy mentions Jane
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v-tr│suAg_obThincrem│COMPLETED_MONODEVMNT                    Kathy read the book
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v-tr│suAg_obThmover│MOTIONCAUSED                            Kathy sends the parcel
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v-tr│suAgmover_obViapnt│MOTIONviaVIAPT                      Kathy passes the church
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v-tr│suCog_obTh│COGNITION                                    Kathy knows the answer
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v-tr│suComitmover_obAgmover│MOTIONPARALLEL                  the boy accompanies the president
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v-tr│suExp_obTrgt│EMOTION                                    Jane likes horses
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v-tr│suOrientedline_obOrientedline│CROSSINGPATHS            the stroke cuts the line
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v-tr│suOrientedline_obOrientedline│PARALLELPATHS            the stroke follows the line
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v-tr│suPathobj_obEndpnt│EXTENSIONtoENDPT                    the path reaches the top
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v-tr│suPathobj_obViapnt│EXTENSIONviaVIAPT                    the path passes the church
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v-tr│suSens_obTh│SENSATION                                  Kathy sees Jane
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v-tr│suPoss_obPossd│POSSESSION                              Jack owns a car
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v-tr│suTh_obBen│PENDINGSTATE                                an accident awaits him
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v-tr│suTh_obExp│EMOTIONCAUSED                                the book depresses Jane
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v-tr│suTh_obLengthcont│EXTENDING                            the track measures 400 meters
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v-tr│suTh_obSens│SENSATIONCAUSED                            the stone hurt Jane
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v-tr│suTh_obTimecont│LASTING                                the film lasts 5 hours
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v-tr│suTh_obWeightcont│WEIGHING                              the stone weighs 5 kg
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v-trImpltransf│suAg_obRec│RENDERINGinPOSITION                he dressed the boy
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v-trImpltransfObl│suAg_obTh_oblLoc│RENDERINGinPOSITION      he spilled water on the tablecloth
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v-trImpltransfObl-OblRefl│suAg_obTh_oblTrgt│RENDERINGinPOSITION  he spilled water on himself
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v-trImpltransf-obRefl│suAg_obPat│RENDERINGinPOSITION        he dressed himself
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v-tr-suGer│suEffector_obAff│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE          getting money for political favours disgusts me
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v-tr-suAbsger│suThsit_obAff│EXPERIENCECAUSED              getting money for political favours disgusts me
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v-tr-suAbsger│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE            building highrises interests Kathy
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v-tr-suGer│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE              my coming astonishes Kathy
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v-tr-suGer_obDECL│suThsit_obThsit│CAUSATION                  Jane’s coming entails that you must come
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v-tr-suGer_obYN│suThsit_obThsit│CAUSATION                    Jane’s coming determines whether you come
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v-tr-suWH│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE                who comes interests Kathy
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v-tr-suWH_obWH│suThsit_obThsit│CAUSATION                    who comes decides who will win
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v-tr-suYN│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE                whether I come interests Kathy
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v-tr-obAbsger│suAg_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE            Kathy considers coming
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v-tr-obDECL│suAg_obEventcont│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY      we arranged that he got a visa
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v-tr-obDECL│suCog_obThsit│COGNITION                          Kathy knows that I came
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v-tr-obDECL│suCog_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE              I assume that he is qualified
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v-tr-obDECL│suSens_obThsit│SENSATION                        Kathy sees that Jane sleeps
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v-tr-obEqInf│suAg_obThsit│ACTIVITY                          Kathy tries to come
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v-tr-obRefl│suAg_obAff│AFFECTING                            Kathy washes herself
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v-trExpnSu-expnDECL│obCog_expnThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE    it worries me that he hasn’t come
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v-trExpnSu-expnCOND│obCog_expnThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE    it will not surprise me if he comes
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v-trExpnSu-expnEqInf│obCog_expnSuThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE it pleases me to come
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v-trExpnSu│obMeas_expnAbsinf││ASSESS                        it takes two hours to go there
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v-trExpnOb-expnCOND│suCog_expnThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE    I will deplore it if you come
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v-trExpnOb-expnAbsinf│suAg_expnThsit│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY  we make it impossible to come
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v-trNrf-obReflExpl│suAgmover│MOTION                          the boy raised himself
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v-trNrfPrt_obReflExpl│suAgmover│MOTIONDIRECTED              the boy pulled himself up
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v-trNrfAdv-obReflExpl│suAg│ACTIVITY                          he behaved himself nicely
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v-trNrfObl-obReflExpl_oblEqSuGer│suAg_oblThsit              Jane resigned herself to waiting
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v-trNrfPath-obReflExpl│suAgmover│MOTION                      he pushes himself forward
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v-trNrfPrtcl-obRefl│suAg│ACTIVITY                            Kathy messed herself up
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v-trNrfScpr-obReflExpl_scSuNrg_scAdj│suAg                    he made himself sick
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v-trNrfScpr-obReflExpl_scSuNrg_scAdj│suAg│INCREMENTALRESULT  he shouted himself hoarse
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v-trObl│suAg_obTh_oblIntrloc│COMMUNICATION                  he told the news to Kathy
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v-trObl-obRefl│suAg_obTh_oblCom│ACHVMNT                      he allied himself with the boy
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v-trObl-obRefl_oblBPob│suAg_obAff_oblThloc│PARTWHOLEAFFECTING Jack scratched himself on the back
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v-trObl-obReflExpl_oblBPob│suAff_oblThloc│PARTWHOLEAFFECTING Jack cut himself on the knee
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v-trObl-oblBPob│suAg_obAff_oblThloc│PARTWHOLEAFFECTING      I kicked Jack in the leg
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v-trObl-oblDECL│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT            he told Jack that he had come
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v-trObl-oblPP│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT              he told Jack about his coming
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v-trObl-oblYN│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT              he asked Jack whether he came
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v-trPassinf-EqSuInf│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT        he begged me to be allowed to come
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v-trObl-oblInf│suAg_obInterloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT            he begged me to go
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v-trObl-obRefl_oblEqSuGer│suAg_obTh_oblThsit│COMMITMENT      he commits himself to coming
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v-trObl-oblPP│suAg_obInterloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT              we tell the children about building houses
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v-trOblScpr-scSuNrg_scN│oblCog_scThsit│PERCPT                he seems to me an idiot
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v-trOblScpr-scSuNrg_scInf│oblCog_scThsit│PERCPT              he seems to me to be an idiot
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v-trPath│suAg_obPurelyorient│ORIENT                          he directs the arrow to the north
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v-trPath│suAg_obOrientedline│LINESITUATING                  he draws the line to the left
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v-trPath│suAgmover_obLocomoevent│LOCOMOCONDUCTION            they take the tour to the north
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v-trPath│suAgmover_obOrientedline│USINGPATH                  the boy will take the path toward the river
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v-trPath│suAgmover_obInstrmover│USINGVEHICLE                the boy will take the bus to town
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v-trPrtcl│suExper_obTh│EXHIBATTITUDE                        Kathy approves of your choice
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v-trPrtcl│suCog_obTh│COGNITION                              Kathy found out the answer
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v-trPrtcl-obDECLcmp│suCog_obThsit│COGNITION                  Kathy found out that I came
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v-trPrtcl-obRefl│suAg_obTh│COMPLETEDACTIVITY                Kathy cleaned herself up
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v-trPrtcl-obYN-suCog_obThsit-COGNITION                      Kathy found out whether they came
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v-trPrtcl-obWH│suCog_obThsit│COGNITION                      Kathy found out who came
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v-trScpr-scBareinf│suSens_obThsit│SENSATION                  I saw him run
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v-trScpr-obRefl_scSuNrg_scPassinf│suAg_obTrgt│PERMISSION    they let themselves be seen
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v-trScpr-scGer│suAg_obTime_scThsit│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY        we spent a week doing it
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v-trScpr-scObNrg_scInf│suCog_scThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE  I assume him to be qualified
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v-trScpr-scObNrg_scGer│suSens│SENSATION                      I saw him running (he was running)
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v-trScpr-scEqSuGer│suSens_obTh│SENSATION                    I saw him running (I was running)
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v-trScpr-scObNrg_obRefl_scGer│suSens_obThsit│SENSATION      he felt himself falling
 +
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scAdj│suCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE          she considers Jack qualified
 +
v-trScpr-scObNrg_obRefl_scAdj│suCog_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE  she considers herself qualified
 +
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scPredprtcl│suAg_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE  they perceived him as qualified
 +
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scN│suAg_obThsit│REPRESENT                  she calls Jane a friend
 +
v-trScpr-scObNrg_obRefl_scN│suAg_obThsit│REPRESENT          she calls herself a friend
 +
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scBareinf│suAg│PERMISSION                  they let the man sing
 +
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scPassInf│suAg│PERMISSION                  they let the song be sung
 +
v-trScpr-scObArgConcurr_scAdj│suAg_obAffincrem│CONCURRSTATE  he drank the coffee cold
 +
v-trScpr-scObArgConcurr_scPP│suAg_obThvehcl│CONCURRSTATE    he drove the car in good condition
 +
v-trScpr-scObArgConcurr_scPredprtcl│suAg_obThvehcl│CONCURRSTATE  he drove the car as an airport limousine
 +
v-trScpr-scObArgRes_scAdj│suCsr_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY she pounded the soil flat
 +
v-trScpr-scObNrgRes_scPP│suCsr_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY  she put the house into good condition
 +
v-trScpr-scObNrgRes_scPP│suCsr_scCsd│PLACEMENT              she put the shoes behind the door
 +
v-trScpr-scObArgCsd_scAdv│suAg_obAff_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  he kicked the ball away
 +
v-trScpr-scObNrgCsd_scAdj│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  they drank the house dry
 +
v-trScpr-scObNrgCsd_obRefl_scAdj│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  she ran herself ragged
 +
v-trScprShft-scObArgCsd_scAdv│suAg_obAff_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  he pushed away the branches
 +
v-trScpr-obDir_obRefl_scObNrgCsd_scAdv│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  he gets himself away
 +
v-trScpr-obPossp_scObNrgCsd_scAdv│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  he sang his sorrows away
 +
v-trScprShft-obPossp_scObNrgCsd_scAdv│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  she wiped away her tears
 +
 +
== Ditransitive ==
 +
TEMPLATE NOTATION                                            ENGLISH EXAMPLE
 +
 +
v-ditr│suAg_iobRec_obTh│TRANSFER                            I gave him the book
 +
v-ditr│suAg_iobBen_obTh│SUSTAINEDSTATE                      he owes her a book
 +
v-trAdv│suThsit_iobAg_advTime│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY              the job took us all day
 +
v-ditr-suAbsger│suThsit_iobBen_obThabst│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  taking walks gives you strength
 +
v-ditr-suGer│suThsit_iobBen_obTh│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  his singing gives Kathy a headache
 +
v-ditr-suYN│suThsit_iobPrcvr_obTh│ASSESS            whether he comes first will give us our plan of attack
 +
v-ditr-suWH│suThsit_iobPrcvr_obThʧASSESS                    what happens last gives us the plan of attack
 +
v-ditr-iobPP│suAg_obTh_iobRec│TRANSFER                      Jack supplied fruit to the store
 +
v-ditr-iobRefl│suAg_iobBen_obTh│AVAILING                    he gave himself time
 +
v-ditr-iobRefl│suAg_iobPermissee_obTh│PERMISSION            Kathy allowed herself three cakes
 +
v-ditr-obDECL│suAg_iobIntrlctr_obThsit│COMMUNICATION        Kathy tells me that he often comes
 +
v-ditr-obEqIobInf│suAg_iobPermissee_obThsit│COMMITMENT      Kathy allows him to come
 +
v-ditr-obEqSuInf│suAg_iobIntrlctr_obThsit│COMMITMENT        Kathy promises him to come
 +
v-ditr-obPP│suAg_iobRec_obTh│TRANSFER                        Jack supplied us with fruits
 +
v-ditr-obWH│suAg_iobIntrlctr_obThsit│COMMUNICATION          he tells me who comes
 +
v-ditr-obYN│suAg_iobIntrlctr_obThsit│COMMUNICATION          he tells me whether they come
 +
v-ditr-iobRefl_obEqIobInf│suAg_iobPermissee_obThsit│COMMITMENT    Kathy allowed herself to come
 +
v-ditr-obEqIobBareinf│suAg_iobInterloc_obThsit│COMMITMENT    Kathy bade him come
 +
v-ditr-obEqIobBareinf│suAg_iobPermissee_obThsit│PERMISSION  Kathy let him come
 +
v-ditr-suWH_obWH│suThsit_iobPrcvr_obThsit│ASSESS          who comes first does not show us who comes last
 +
v-ditr-suYN_obYN│suThsit_iobPrcvr_obThsit│ASSESS  whether he smiles will show us whether they have a plan
 +
v-ditrComp-cmpDECL│suAg_iobComit_obTh│CONDITIONALTRANSFER    I bet you fifty cents he won’t come
 +
v-ditrExpnSu-expnEqInf│obMeas│ASSESS                          it took me two hours to get there
 +
v-ditrImpltransf│suCsr_iobAff_obTh│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY    the book cost me ten dollars
 +
v-ditrObl│suAg_iobRec_obTh_oblMeas│TRANSFER                  he sold me the car for fifty dollars
 +
v-ditrObl│suAg_iobRec_obTh_oblTrgt│TRANSFER                  Jack paid Jane fifty dollars for the car
 +
v-ditrObl-iobPP│suAg_obTh_iobRec_oblMeas│TRANSFER            Jack sold the car to Jane for fifty dollars
 +
v-ditrObl-iobPP│suAg_obTh_iobRec_oblTrgt│TRANSFER            Jack paid fifty dollars to Jane for the car
 +
 +
== Copula == 
 +
TEMPLATE NOTATION                                            ENGLISH EXAMPLE
 +
 +
v-copAdj│suExper│SEMELFACTIVE                                Jane is startled
 +
v-copAdj│suTh│PROPTY                                        he is kind
 +
v-copAdj-suAbsGer│suThsit│ASSESS                            running is healthy
 +
v-copAdj-suDECL│suThsit│ASSESS                              that he came at all is surprising
 +
v-copAdj-suInf│suThsit│ASSESS                                to err is human
 +
v-copAdj-suWH│suThsit│ASSESS                                who will comes is uncertain
 +
v-copAdj-suYN│suThsit│ASSESS                                whether he comes is uncertain
 +
v-copAdjObl-oblEqSuGer│suAg_oblActivity│HABITUALACTIVITY    Jane is busy (these days) with writing
 +
v-copN│suTh│PROPTY                                          he is a fool
 +
v-copN-suAbsger│suThsit│ASSESS                              seeing him was a pleasure
 +
v-copN-suDECL│suThsit│ASSESS                                that he came was a shock
 +
v-copN-suWH│suThsit│ASSESS                                  who should go is the question
 +
v-copN-suYN│suThsit│ASSESS                                  whether he will come is a question
 +
v-copPP│suTh│ASSESS                                          the performance was beyond belief
 +
v-copPP│suTh│EXHIBACTIVITY                                  the performance is in progress
 +
v-copPP-suDECL│suThsit│ASSESS                                that he came was beyond our expectations
 +
v-copPP-suWH│suThsit│ASSESS                                  who may perform is under consideration
 +
v-copPP-suYN│suThsit│ASSESS                                  whether he may perform is under discussion
 +
v-copPredprtcl│suTh│ASSESS                               the result was as desired
 +
v-copPredprtcl-suAbsinf│suThsit│ASSESS                      to be there was like a dream
 +
v-copPredprtcl-suAbsger│suThsit│ASSESS                      being there was like a dream
 +
v-copPredprtcl-suWH│suThsit│ASSESS                          what he said was off the mark
 +
v-copExpnAdj-expnDECL│expnThsitɲASSESS                      it is sad that he leaves
 +
v-copExpnAdj-expnAbsinf│expnThsit│ASSESS                    it is great to be healthy
 +
v-copExpnAdj-expnYN│expnThsit╠ASSESS                        it is uncertain whether he comes
 +
v-copExpnAdj-expnWH│expnThsit│ASSESS                        it is uncertain who came
 +
v-copExpnN-expnAbsinf│expnThsit│ASSESS                      it is a chore to chop wood
 +
v-copExpnN-expnDECL│expnThsit│ASSESS                        it was a disappointment that he failed
 +
v-copExpnN-expnWH│expnThsit│ASSESS                          it is a question who will come
 +
v-copExpnN-expnYN│expnThsit│ASSESS                          it is a question whether he will come
 +
v-copExpnNPredprt-expnAbsger│expnThsit│ASSESS                there is an art to eating spaghetti
 +
v-copExpnPP-expnDECL│expnThsit│ASSESS                        it was in the third round that he lost
 +
v-copExpnPredprtPP-expnDECL│expnThsit│ASSESS                it is out of the question that he comes
 +
v-copExpnPredprtcl-expnDECL│expnThsit│ASSESS                it is as well that he knows
 +
v-copImpersAdjLoc│ASSESS                                    it is nice here
 +
v-copImpersAdjLoc-locPP│ASSESS                              it is nice in Trondheim
 +
v-copIdN│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                            this is the man
 +
v-copIdAbsinf│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                        the task is to finish it
 +
v-copIdDECL│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                          the problem is that he likes herring
 +
v-copIdWH│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                            the problem is who gets it
 +
v-copIdYN│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                            the problem is whether he eats meat
 +
v-copIdN-suDECL│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                      that he picks up the letter is the signal
 +
v-copIdN-suAbsger│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                    eating it is the last step
 +
v-copIdAbsinf-suAbsinf│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY            to eat hot dogs is to support the global economy
 +
v-copIdAbsger-suAbsger│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY              eating local food is supporting local culture
 +
 +
 +
== Auxiliary verb ==
 +
 +
With focus on main verb:
 +
axv_intr-av1mod                                              he can come
 +
axv_intr-vPart│PERFECT                                      he has come
 +
axv-intr-vPart│suAgmover│MOTION                              the boy is running
 +
 +
As a ‘root’ modal:
 +
v-intrAuxmodComp-compEqBareinf-suAg_compThsit                he can come
 +
As an ‘epistemic’ modal:
 +
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scBareinf                                he can come
 +
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LIST OF ENGLISH VERB CONSTRUCTION TYPES
 
  
Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
 
  
This list is built on the Norwegian list included in SLAVOB 6.3
 
  
Intransitive:
 
v-intr│suAg│ACTIVITY
 
the boy jumps
 
DEF boy-DEF jump-SG.PRES
 
v-intr│suAg│SEMELFACTIVE
 
the boy jumps
 
DEF boy jump-SG.PRES
 
v-intr│suAg│COMPLETEDMONODEVMNT
 
Jack ate.
 
J eat-PAST
 
v-intr│suSens│PROTR-SENSATION
 
the boy listens
 
DEF boy listen-SG.PRES
 
v-intr│suTh│PROCESS
 
the ice melts
 
DEF ice melt-SG.PRES
 
v-intr│suTh│SUSTAINEDPHENOM
 
the rain continued
 
DEF rain continue-PST
 
v-intr│suThmover│MOTION
 
the ball rolls
 
DEF ball roll-SG.PRES
 
v-intr-suAbsGer│suThsit│ASSESS
 
getting money for political favours stinks
 
get-GER money for PREP political favours stink-SG.PRES
 
v-intr-suNrg│PHENOM
 
it rains
 
PRON.EXPL rain-PRES
 
v-intrAdv│suAg│ACHIEVEMENT
 
he functions well
 
3SG function-SG.PRES well
 
Jane writes badly
 
J write-3SG.PRES badly
 
v-intrAdv│suTh│PROPTY
 
The machine functions well
 
DET machine function-3SG.PRES well
 
v-intrObl│suAg_oblInstr│ACTIVITY
 
Jane wrote with a pen
 
J write-PST with DET pen
 
v-intrObl│suAg_oblTrgt│ACTIVITY
 
Jane wrote to John
 
J write-PST to J
 
v-intrObl-oblEndpt│suAgmover│MOTIONDIRECTED
 
John walked into the room
 
v-intrObl│suExp_oblCsr│EMOTIONCAUSED
 
they grieved over the death
 
PRON.3PL grieve-PST over DET death
 
v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│PHENOM
 
stars appear in the heavens
 
star-PL appear-PRES in DET heavens
 
v-intrObl-oblEqSuGer│suAg_oblContent│ASSESS
 
Jane believes in speaking her mind
 
J be engaged PREP write-GER
 
v-intrObl│suPurelyorient_oblTrgt│ORIENT
 
the arrow points to the north
 
DEF arrow point-3SG.PRES PREP DEF north
 
v-intrObl│suPath_oblTrgt│PATHCONSTELLATION
 
the road goes towards the north
 
DEF road go-3SG.PRES PREP DEF north
 
v-intrAdvPath│suLocomoevent│LOCOMODEVELOPMENT
 
the tour goes northwards
 
DEF tour go-SG.PRES northwards
 
v-intrAdvPresent-suExpn│suThmover│MOTIONPRESENTED
 
there goes the ball
 
there go-3SG.PRES DEF ball
 
v-intrComp│suCog_compThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
Kathy thought I would come
 
K think-PST 1SG would come
 
v-intrComp-compYN│suCog_compThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
Kathy wonders whether I will come
 
K. wonder-3SG.PRES WH.YN PRON.1SG AUX.FUT come
 
v-intrComp-compWH│suCog_compThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
Kathy wonders who will come
 
K. wonder-SG.PRES WH.HUMAN AUX.FUT come
 
v-intrExlnk-ExlnkDECL
 
it appears that he will come
 
PRON.EXPL appear-SG.PRES COMP PRON.SG FUT come
 
v-intrExpn-expnAbsinf│ASSESS
 
it helps to sit down
 
PRON.EXPL help-PRES INF sit down 
 
v-intrExpn-expnDECL_suNrg│PHENOM
 
it happens that the earth is round
 
PRON.EXPL happen-PRES COMP DEF earth be-3SG.PRES round
 
v-intrExpn-expnEquat│ASSESS
 
it looks as if he did it
 
PRON.EXPL look-PRES CONJ PRON.3SG do-PST it
 
v-intrExpn-expnWH_suNrg
 
it is a question who comes
 
PRON.EXPL be.3SG.PRES DET question WH.HUMAN come-SG.PRES
 
v-intrExpn-expnYN
 
it is a question whether he can do it
 
PRON.EXPL be.SG.PRES DET question WH.YN PRON.3S can-SG.PRES do PRON
 
v-intrImplMotion│suPath│CROSSINGPATHS
 
their paths crossed
 
PRON.POSS.3PL cross-PST
 
v-intrObRais-suNrg_obRaisInf│obThsit│EXHIBACT
 
He appears to come
 
he appears INF come
 
v-intrObl│suAg_oblAffincrem│NONCOMPLETED_MONODEVMNT
 
she nibbles at the apple
 
PRON.3SG eat-PRES PREP DEF apple
 
v-intrObl│suAg_oblLoc│LOCATION
 
she lives in London
 
PRON.3SG live-PRES PREP London
 
v-intrObl│suAg_oblTopic│ACTIVITY-COMMUNICATION EVENT?
 
I talk about Jane
 
PRON.1SG talk-PRES about Jane
 
v-intrObl│suAg_oblTrgt│EMISSION
 
he vomited on the tablecloth
 
PRON.3SG vomit-PAST PREP DEF tablecloth
 
v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│INCHOATIONLOCATED
 
A crack appears in the glass
 
DET crack appear-SG.PRES PREP DEF glass
 
v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│LOCATION
 
Boston is in Massachusetts
 
B. lie-PRES PROP M.
 
v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│LOCATION
 
The town lies in the valley
 
DEF town lie-SG.PRES PREP DEF valley
 
v-intrObl│suTh_oblPoss│POSSESSION
 
the book belongs to Jane
 
book-DEF belong-3SG.PRES to J
 
v-intrObl_suWH│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND
 
who comes depends on you
 
who comes depend-SG.PRES PREP you
 
v-intrObl-suWH_oblWH│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND
 
who comes depends on what you do
 
WH.human come-SG.PRES depend-SG.PRES PREP WH.nonhum PRON.2SG do
 
v-intrObl-suYN│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND
 
whether he comes depends on you
 
WH.YN PRON.3SG come-SG.PRES depend-SG.PRES PREP PRON.2SG
 
v-intrObl-suYN_oblYN│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND
 
whether he comes depends on whether you come
 
WH.YN PRON.3SG come-SG.PRES depend-SG.PRES PREP WH.YN PRON.2SG come
 
v-intrObl-oblAbsGer│suAg_oblContent│ACTIVITY-ABOUTNESS
 
they talk about travelling to Mars
 
PRON.3PL talk-PRES PREP travel-GER to Mars
 
v-intrObl-oblDeclNom│suAg_oblContent│ACTIVITY
 
they talk about it being too late
 
PRON.3PL talk-PRES PREP 3SG be-GER too late
 
v-intrObl-oblEqSuInf│suAg_oblContent│ACTIVITY-PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
he hopes to come
 
PRON.3SG hope-SG.PRES INF come
 
v-intrObl-oblInf│suAg_oblEventcont│CAUSATION
 
we arranged for him to get a visa
 
PRON.1PL arrange-PST for him INF get a visa
 
v-intrOblExpn-suNrg_expnYN
 
it depends on you whether he will win
 
PRON.EXPL depend-3SG.PRES PREP PRON.2SG WH.YN PRON.3SG FUT win
 
v-intrOblPath│suAgmover_OblEndpt│MOTIONtoENDPT
 
a man runs to here
 
DET man run-3SG.PRES PREP here  (where ‘here’ means ‘point X’)
 
v-intrOblScpr-scSuNrg_scInf│oblCog_scThsit│PERCPT
 
he seems to me to be in a good mood
 
he seem-PRES me in good mood
 
v-intrPrtcl-suNrg│TELIC-PHENOM
 
it clears up
 
PRON.EXPL clear-PRES up
 
v-intrScPr-scPrAdj│suSens│PROTR-EXPER
 
the boy feels cold
 
DEF boy feel-SG.PRES cold
 
v-intrScPr-suBPspec_scPrAdj│suThloc│PARTWHOLEEXPER
 
my back feels cold
 
1SG.POSS back feel-3SG.PRES cold
 
v-intrScPrExpn-ScPrAdj_ExpnDECL
 
it is urgent that it gets tidied up
 
PRON.EXPL be.3SG.PRES urgent COMP 3SG.nonhum get-3SG.PRES tidy-PART ADV
 
It is essential that he comes
 
PRON.EXPL be.SG.PRES essential COMP PRON.3SG come-SG.PRES
 
v-intrPresnt│presTh
 
there lived a man
 
PRON.EXPL live-PAST DET man
 
v-intrPresntLoc│presntAg_advLoc│POSTURELOC
 
there sits a man in the chair
 
PRON.EXPL sit-3SG.PRES DET man PREP DEF chair
 
v-intrPresnt-suNrg_presntREL│presThsit
 
There comes a time when nothing works
 
PRON.EXPL come-PRES DET time WH.TIME PRON work-SG.PRES
 
v-intrPrtcl│suAg│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY
 
Jack keeps on
 
Jack keep-3SG.PRES on
 
v-intrPrtcl│suTh│SUSTAINEDPHENOM
 
The rain keeps on
 
DEF rain keep-3SG.PRES on
 
v-intrPrtclGer│suAg│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY
 
Jack kept on running
 
J  keep-PST on run-GER
 
v-intrPrtclObl│suAg_obl│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY
 
Jack kept on with his running
 
J keep-PST on with his running
 
v-intrScpr-scAdj│suThmover│EXHIBPROPTY
 
the water runs clear (formerly it didn’t)
 
DEF water run-3SG.PRES clear
 
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scAdj│EXHIBPROPTY
 
the boy seems sick
 
DEF boy seem-3SG.PRES sick
 
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scInf
 
he seems to believe it
 
PRON.3SG seem-PRES INF believe it
 
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scAdj│EXHIBPROPTY
 
the boy seems sensible
 
boy-DEF seem-3SG.PRES sensible
 
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scInf│EXHIBPROPTY
 
the boy seems to be a leader
 
DEF boy seem-3SG.PRES INF be DET leader
 
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scPP│EXHIBPROPTY
 
the boy seems in good shape
 
DEF boy seem-3SG.PRES PREP good shape
 
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scPredprtcl│EXHIBPROPTY
 
the boy appears as a hero in the report
 
DEF boy appear-3SG.PRES as a hero PREP DEF report
 
v-intrScpr-scSuArgCsd_scAdv│suTh│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT
 
the coffee boils away
 
DEF coffee boil-PRES away
 
v-intrScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scAdv│INCREMRESULT
 
the cup runs over
 
DEF cup run-3SG.PRES over
 
v-intrScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scAdv│INCREMRESULT
 
the shore eroded away
 
DEF shore erode-PAST away
 
v-intrScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scPP│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT
 
the house burned to a cinder
 
DEF house burn-PAST PREP DET cinder
 
v-intrScpr-suNrg_scEquat│RESULT
 
it looks as though he came
 
3SG look-SG.PRES as though PRON.3SG come-PST
 
v-intrScpr-scAdj│suTh│PROPTYDYN
 
the house stands empty
 
DEF house stand-3SG.PRES empty
 
The property lay unattended
 
DEF property lie-PST unattended
 
v-intrLghtScpr-scSuNrg_scPredprtcl
 
the boy emerged as a suspect
 
DEF boy emerge-PST as DET suspect
 
v-intrLghtScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scAdj│INCREMRESULT
 
the company goes broke
 
DEF company go-3SG.PRES broke
 
v-intrPrtclScpr-scSuNrg_scAdj│EXHIBPROPTY
 
The boy ended up sick
 
DEF boy end-PST up sick
 
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scPredprtcl│EXHIBPROPTY
 
the boy sounds like a parrot
 
DEF boy sound-3SG.PRES like DET parrot
 
v-intrObl│suAg_oblTrg│COMPARISON
 
The boy runs like a donkey
 
DEF boy run-3SG.PRES like DET donkey
 
v-intrWH│PHENOM
 
A time comes when nothing works
 
DET time come-3SG.PRES WH.time nothing work-3SG.PRES
 
v-intrAuxmodComp-compEqBareinf│suAg_compThsit
 
Jane can paddle
 
Jane can-PRES paddle
 
This template classifies the construction from the viewpoint of can being the head of the construction, and acting as an 
 
‘equi’ verb, thus with a so-called ‘root’ interpretation. From a viewpoint more motivating the term ‘auxiliary verb’, an
 
alternative template is axv_intr-av1mod, seeing paddle as the head, just being preceded by the modal.
 
v-intrAuxmodScpr-suDir_scSuNrg_scAdv
 
he must go out
 
PRON.3SG must go out
 
  
Transitive:
 
v-tr│suAg_oblAffincrem│MONODEVMNT
 
she eats the apple
 
PRON.3SG eat-PRES DEF apple
 
v-tr│suAg_obAff│CONTACTFORCEFUL
 
Jack beats John
 
Ja beat-3SG.PRES Jo
 
v-tr│suAg_obAffincrem│COMPLETED_MONODEVMNT
 
Kathy ate the cake
 
K. eat-PST DEF cake
 
v-tr│suAgmover_obPathobj│MOTIONALONGLINE
 
Kathy follows the path
 
K. follow-3SG PRES DEF path
 
v-tr│suAgmover_obAgmover│MOTIONCROSSPATHS
 
the boy crosses the demonstration parade
 
DEF boy cross-3SG.PRES DEF parade
 
v-tr│suAgmover_obEndpnt│MOTIONtoENDPT
 
Kathy reaches the top
 
K. reach-3SG.PRES DEF top
 
John entered the room
 
v-tr│suAgmover_obStartpt│MOTIONDIRECTED
 
Kathy left the room
 
v-tr│suAg_obEjct│EJECTION
 
Kathy throws the ball
 
K. throw-3SG.PRES DEF ball
 
v-tr│suAg_obEjctinobj│EJECTION
 
she shoots plastic bullets
 
PRON.3SG shoot-3SG.PRES plastic bullets
 
v-tr│suAg_obEventcont│ACTIVITY
 
she sang a beautiful song
 
PRON.3SG sing-PST DET beautiful song
 
v-tr│suAg_obExp│EMOTIONCAUSED
 
Kathy frightens Jane
 
K. frighten-3SG.PRES J.
 
v-tr│suAgmover_obLengthcont│MOTIONEXTENDING
 
the boy walks two kilometers
 
DEF boy walk-3SG.PRES two kilometer-PL
 
v-tr│suAg_obTh│REPRESENTING
 
Kathy mentions Jane
 
K. mention-3SG.PRES J.
 
v-tr│suAg_obThincrem│COMPLETED_MONODEVMNT
 
Kathy read the book
 
K. read-PST book-DEF
 
v-tr│suAg_obThmover│MOTIONCAUSED
 
Kathy sends the parcel
 
K. send-3SG.PRES DEF parcel
 
v-tr│suAgmover_obViapnt│MOTIONviaVIAPT
 
Kathy passes the church
 
K. pass-3SG.PRES DEF church
 
v-tr│suCog_obTh│COGNITION
 
Kathy knows the answer
 
K. know-3SG.PRES DEF answer
 
v-tr│suComitmover_obAgmover│MOTIONPARALLEL
 
the boy accompanies the president
 
DEF boy accompany-3SG.PRES DEF president
 
v-tr│suExp_obTrgt│EMOTION
 
Jane likes horses
 
J like-3SG.PRES horse-PL
 
v-tr│suOrientedline_obOrientedline│CROSSINGPATHS
 
the stroke cuts the line
 
DEF stroke cut-3SG.PRES DEF line
 
v-tr│suOrientedline_obOrientedline│PARALLELPATHS
 
the stroke follows the line
 
  DEF stroke follow-3SG.PRES DEF line
 
The path follows the river
 
DEF path follow-3SG.PRES DEF river
 
v-tr│suPathobj_obEndpnt│EXTENSIONtoENDPT
 
the path reaches the top
 
DEF path reach-3SG.PRES DEF top
 
v-tr│suPathobj_obViapnt│EXTENSIONviaVIAPT
 
the path passes the church
 
DEF path pass-3SG.PRES DEF church
 
v-tr│suSens_obTh│SENSATION
 
Kathy sees Jane
 
K. see-3SG.PRES J.
 
v-tr│suPoss_obPossd│POSSESSION
 
Jack owns a car
 
v-tr│suTh_obBen│PENDINGSTATE
 
an accident awaits him
 
DET accident await-3SG.PRES PRON.3SG
 
v-tr│suTh_obExp│EMOTIONCAUSED
 
the book depresses Jane
 
book-DEF depress-3SG.PRES J
 
v-tr│suTh_obLengthcont│EXTENDING
 
the track measures 400 meters
 
DEF track measure-3SG.PRES 400 meter-PL
 
v-tr│suTh_obSens│SENSATIONCAUSED
 
the stone hurt Jane
 
DEF stone hurt-3SG.PST J
 
v-tr│suTh_obTimecont│LASTING
 
the film lasts 5 hours
 
DEF film last-3SG.PRES 5 hour-PL
 
v-tr│suTh_obWeightcont│WEIGHING
 
the stone weighs 5 kg
 
DEF stone weigh-3SG.PRES 5 kg
 
v-trImpltransf│suAg_obRec│RENDERINGinPOSITION
 
he dressed the boy
 
PRON.3SG dress-PAST DEF boy
 
v-trImpltransfObl│suAg_obTh_oblLoc│RENDERINGinPOSITION
 
he spilled water on the tablecloth
 
he spill-PAST on DEF tablecloth
 
v-trImpltransfObl-OblRefl│suAg_obTh_oblTrgt│RENDERINGinPOSITION
 
he spilled water on himself
 
he spill-PAST water PREP PRON.REFL
 
v-trImpltransf-obRefl│suAg_obPat│RENDERINGinPOSITION
 
he dressed himself
 
he dress-PAST 3SG.REFL
 
v-tr-suGer│suEffector_obAff│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
getting money for political favours disgusts me
 
get-GER money for political favours disgust-3SG.PRES 1SG
 
v-tr-suAbsger│suThsit_obAff│EXPERIENCECAUSED
 
getting money for political favours disgusts me
 
get-GER money for political favours disgust-3SG.PRES 1SG
 
v-tr-suAbsger│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
building highrises interests Kathy
 
Build-GER highrise-PL interest-3SG.PRES K.
 
v-tr-suGer│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
My coming astonishes Kathy
 
PRON.POSS.1SG come-GER astonish-3SG.PRES K
 
v-tr-suGer_obDECL│suThsit_obThsit│CAUSATION
 
Jane’s coming entails that you must come
 
J-POSS come-GER entail-3SG.PRES COMP PRON.2SG must come
 
v-tr-suGer_obYN│suThsit_obThsit│CAUSATION
 
Jane’s coming determines whether you come
 
J-POSS come-GER determine-3SG.PRES WH.YN PRON.2SG come
 
v-tr-suWH│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
who comes interests Kathy
 
WH.hum come-3SG.PRES interest-3SG.PRES K.
 
v-tr-suWH_obWH│suThsit_obThsit│CAUSATION
 
Who comes decides who will win
 
WH.Hum come-3SG.PRES decide-3SG.PRES WH.Hum FUT win
 
v-tr-suYN│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
Whether I come interests Kathy
 
WH.YN PRON.1SG come-PRES interest-3SG.PRES K.
 
v-tr-obAbsger│suAg_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
Kathy considers coming
 
K. consider-3SG.PRES come-GER
 
v-tr-obDECL│suAg_obEventcont│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY
 
we arranged that he got a visa
 
PRON.1PL arrange-PST COMP PRON.3SG get-PST DET visa
 
v-tr-obDECL│suCog_obThsit│COGNITION
 
Kathy knows that I came
 
K. know-3SG.PRES COMP PRON.1SG come-PST
 
v-tr-obDECL│suCog_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
I assume that he is qualified
 
PRON.1SG assume COMP he is qualified
 
v-tr-obDECL│suSens_obThsit│SENSATION
 
Kathy sees that Jane sleeps
 
K. see-3SG.PRES COMP J. sleep-3SG.PRES
 
v-tr-obEqInf│suAg_obThsit│ACTIVITY
 
Kathy tries to come
 
K. try-3SG.PRES INF come
 
v-tr-obRefl│suAg_obAff│AFFECTING
 
Kathy washes herself
 
K. wash-3SG.PRES REFL
 
v-trExpnSu-expnDECL│obCog_expnThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
it worries me that he hasn’t come
 
PRON.EXPL worry-3SG.PRES PRON.1SG COMP PRON.3SG AUX-NEG come
 
v-trExpnSu-expnCOND│obCog_expnThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
it will not surprise me if he comes
 
PRON.EXPL FUT NEG surprise PRON.1SG CONJ PRON.3SG come-3SG.PRES
 
v-trExpnSu-expnEqInf│obCog_expnSuThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
it pleases me to come
 
PRON.EXPL please-3SG.PRES PRON.1SG INF come
 
v-trExpnSu│obMeas_expnAbsinf││ASSESS
 
it takes two hours to go there
 
PRON.EXPL take-3SG.PRES two hours INF go there
 
v-trExpnOb-expnCOND│suCog_expnThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
I will deplore it if you come
 
PRON.1SG FUT deplore PRON.EXPL CONJ PRON.SG come
 
v-trExpnOb-expnAbsinf│suAg_expnThsit│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY
 
we make it impossible to come
 
PRON.1PL make PRON.EXPL impossible INF come
 
v-trNrf-obReflExpl│suAgmover│MOTION
 
the boy raised himself
 
DEF boy raise-PST REFL
 
v-trNrfPrt_obReflExpl│suAgmover│MOTIONDIRECTED
 
The boy pulled himself up
 
DEF boy pull-PST REFL up
 
v-trNrfAdv-obReflExpl│suAg│ACTIVITY
 
he behaved himself nicely
 
PRON.3SG behave-PST REFL
 
v-trNrfObl-obReflExpl_oblEqSuGer│suAg_oblThsit
 
Jane resigned herself to waiting
 
J resign-PST REFL to wait-GER
 
v-trNrfPath-obReflExpl│suAgmover│MOTION
 
He pushes himself forward
 
PRON.3SG push-3SG.PRES REFL forward
 
v-trNrfPrtcl-obRefl│suAg│ACTIVITY
 
Kathy messed herself up
 
K. mess-PST REFL up
 
v-trNrfScpr-obReflExpl_scSuNrg_scAdj│suAg
 
he made himself sick
 
PRON.3SG make-PST REFL sick
 
v-trNrfScpr-obReflExpl_scSuNrg_scAdj│suAg│INCREMENTALRESULT
 
he shouted himself hoarse
 
PRON.3SG shout-PST REFL hoarse
 
v-trObl│suAg_obTh_oblIntrloc│COMMUNICATION
 
he told the news to Kathy
 
PRON.3SG tell-PST DEF news to K
 
v-trObl-obRefl│suAg_obTh_oblCom│ACHVMNT
 
he allied himself with the boy
 
PRON.3SG ally-PST REFL with DEF boy
 
v-trObl-obRefl_oblBPob│suAg_obAff_oblThloc│PARTWHOLEAFFECTING
 
Jack scratched himself on the back
 
J. scratch-PST REFL on DEF back
 
v-trObl-obReflExpl_oblBPob│suAff_oblThloc│PARTWHOLEAFFECTING
 
Jack cut himself on the knee
 
J. cut-PST REFL on DEF knee
 
v-trObl-oblBPob│suAg_obAff_oblThloc│PARTWHOLEAFFECTING
 
I kicked Jack in the leg
 
I kick-PST J. in DEF leg
 
v-trObl-oblDECL│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT
 
he told Jack that he had come
 
PRON.3SG tell-PST J. COMP PRON.3SG PRF come
 
v-trObl-oblPP│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT
 
he told Jack about his coming
 
PRON.3SG tell-PST J. about PRON.3SG.POSS come-GER
 
v-trObl-oblYN│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT
 
He asked Jack whether he came
 
PRON.3SG ask-PST WH.YN PRON.3SG come-PST
 
v-trPassinf-EqSuInf│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT
 
he begged me to be allowed to come
 
PRON.3SG beg-PST PRON.1SG INF be allowed INF come
 
v-trObl-oblInf│suAg_obInterloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT
 
he begged me to go
 
PRON.3SG beg-PST PRON.1SG INF go
 
v-trObl-obRefl_oblEqSuGer│suAg_obTh_oblThsit│COMMITMENT
 
he commits himself to coming
 
PRON.3SG commit-3SG.PRES REFL INF come
 
v-trObl-oblPP│suAg_obInterloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT
 
we tell the children about building houses
 
PRON.1PL tell-PRES DEF child-PL about build-GER houses
 
v-trOblScpr-scSuNrg_scN│oblCog_scThsit│PERCPT
 
he seems to me an idiot
 
PRON.3SG seem-3SG.PRES to PRON.1SG DET idiot
 
v-trOblScpr-scSuNrg_scInf│oblCog_scThsit│PERCPT
 
He seems to me to be an idiot
 
PRON.3SG seem-3SG.PRES to PRON.1SG INF be DET idiot
 
v-trPath│suAg_obPurelyorient│ORIENT
 
he directs the arrow to the north
 
PRON.3SG direct-PRES DEF arrow to DEF north
 
v-trPath│suAg_obOrientedline│LINESITUATING
 
he draws the line to the left
 
PRON.3SG draw-PRES DEF line to DEF left
 
v-trPath│suAgmover_obLocomoevent│LOCOMOCONDUCTION
 
they take the tour to the north
 
PRON.3PL take-PRES DEF tour to DEF north
 
v-trPath│suAgmover_obOrientedline│USINGPATH
 
the boy will take the path toward the river
 
DEF boy will take DEF path toward DEF river
 
v-trPath│suAgmover_obInstrmover│USINGVEHICLE
 
the boy will take the bus to town
 
DEF boy FUT take DEF bus to town
 
v-trPrtcl│suExper_obTh│EXHIBATTITUDE
 
Kathy approves of your choice
 
K approve-3SG.PRES of PRON.POSS.2SG choice
 
v-trPrtcl│suCog_obTh│COGNITION
 
Kathy found out the answer
 
K. find-PST out DEF answer
 
v-trPrtcl-obDECLcmp│suCog_obThsit│COGNITION
 
Kathy found out that I came
 
K. find-PAST out COMP PRON.1SG come-PST
 
v-trPrtcl-obRefl│suAg_obTh│COMPLETEDACTIVITY
 
Kathy cleaned herself up
 
K. clean-PST REFL up
 
v-trPrtcl-obYN-suCog_obThsit-COGNITION
 
Kathy found out whether they came
 
K. find-PST out WH.YN PRON.3PL come-PST
 
v-trPrtcl-obWH│suCog_obThsit│COGNITION
 
Kathy found out who came
 
K. find-PST out WH.HUM come-PST
 
Kathy figured out what the answer was.
 
K. figure-PST out WH.NONHUM DEF answer be-PST
 
v-trScpr-scBareinf│suSens_obThsit│SENSATION
 
I saw him run
 
I see-PST him run
 
v-trScpr-obRefl_scSuNrg_scPassinf│suAg_obTrgt│PERMISSION
 
They let themselves be seen
 
PRON.3PL let-PST REFL be seen
 
v-trScpr-scGer│suAg_obTime_scThsit│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY
 
we spent a week doing it
 
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scInf│suCog_scThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
I assume him to be qualified
 
I assume-PRES him INF be qualified
 
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scGer│suSens│SENSATION
 
I saw him running (he was running)
 
PRON.1SG see-PST PRON.3SG run-GER
 
v-trScpr-scEqSuGer│suSens_obTh│SENSATION
 
I saw him running (I was running)
 
PRON.1SG see-PST PRON.3SG run-GER
 
v-trScpr-scObNrg_obRefl_scGer│suSens_obThsit│SENSATION
 
he felt himself falling
 
he feel-PAST REFL fall-GER
 
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scAdj│suCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
she considers Jack qualified
 
PRON.3SG consider-PRES J qualified
 
v-trScpr-scObNrg_obRefl_scAdj│suCog_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
she considers herself qualified
 
PRON.3SG consider-3SG.PRES 3SG.REFL qualified
 
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scPredprtcl│suAg_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE
 
they perceived him as qualified
 
PRON.3PL perceive-PST PRON.3S as qualified
 
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scN│suAg_obThsit│REPRESENT
 
she calls Jane a friend
 
PRON.3SG call-PRES J DET friend
 
v-trScpr-scObNrg_obRefl_scN│suAg_obThsit│REPRESENT
 
she calls herself a friend
 
she call-PRES REFL a friend
 
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scBareinf│suAg│PERMISSION
 
they let the man sing
 
PRON.3PS let DEF man sing
 
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scPassInf│suAg│PERMISSION
 
they let the song be sung
 
PRON.3PL let DEF song be.INF sing-PART
 
v-trScpr-scObArgConcurr_scAdj│suAg_obAffincrem│CONCURRSTATE
 
he drank the coffee cold
 
he drink-PAST DEF coffee warm 'he drank the coffee warm'
 
v-trScpr-scObArgConcurr_scPP│suAg_obThvehcl│CONCURRSTATE
 
he drove the car in good condition
 
PRON.3SG drive-PAST DEF car in good condition
 
v-trScpr-scObArgConcurr_scPredprtcl│suAg_obThvehcl│CONCURRSTATE
 
he drove the car like a tractor
 
PRON.3SG drive-PAST DEF car like DET tractor
 
v-trScpr-scObArgRes_scAdj│suCsr_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY
 
she pounded the soil flat
 
PRON.3SG pound-PAST DEF soil flat
 
v-trScpr-scObNrgRes_scPP│suCsr_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY
 
she put the house into good condition
 
PRON.3SG put-PAST DEF house into good condition
 
v-trScpr-scObNrgRes_scPP│suCsr_scCsd│PLACEMENT
 
she put the shoes behind the door
 
PRON.3SG put-PAST DEF shoe-PL behind DEF door
 
v-trScpr-scObArgCsd_scAdv│suAg_obAff_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT
 
he kicked the ball away
 
PRON.3SG kick-PAST DEF ball away
 
v-trScpr-scObNrgCsd_scAdj│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT
 
they drank the house dry
 
PRON.3PL drink-PAST DEF house dry
 
v-trScpr-scObNrgCsd_obRefl_scAdj│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT
 
she ran herself ragged
 
PRON.3SG run-PAST REFL ragged
 
v-trScprShft-scObArgCsd_scAdv│suAg_obAff_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT
 
he pushed away the branches
 
PRON.3SG push-PAST away DEF branch-PL
 
v-trScpr-obDir_obRefl_scObNrgCsd_scAdv│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT
 
he gets himself away
 
PRON.3SG get-PRES REFL away
 
v-trScpr-obPossp_scObNrgCsd_scAdv│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT
 
he sang his sorrows away
 
PRON.3SG sing-PAST PRON.POSS.3SG sorrow-PL away
 
v-trScprShft-obPossp_scObNrgCsd_scAdv│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT
 
she wiped away her tears
 
PRON.3SG wipe-PAST PRON.POSS.3SG tear-PL
 
  
Ditransitive:
 
v-ditr│suAg_iobRec_obTh│TRANSFER
 
I gave him the book
 
I give-PAST him DEF book
 
v-ditr│suAg_iobBen_obTh│SUSTAINEDSTATE
 
he owes her a book
 
PRON.3SG owe-3SG.PRES DET book
 
v-trAdv│suThsit_iobAg_advTime│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY
 
the job took us all day
 
v-ditr-suAbsger│suThsit_iobBen_obThabst│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT
 
taking walks gives  you strength
 
take-GER walks give-3SG.PRES PRON.2 strength
 
v-ditr-suGer│suThsit_iobBen_obTh│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT
 
his singing gives Kathy a headache
 
PRON.POSS.3SG sing-GER give-3SG.PRES K DET headache
 
v-ditr-suYN│suThsit_iobPrcvr_obTh│ASSESS
 
whether he comes first will give us our plan of attack
 
whether PRON.3SG come-3SG.PRES first FUT show PRON.1PL plan of attack
 
v-ditr-suWH│suThsit_iobPrcvr_obThʧASSESS
 
what happens last gives us the plan of attack
 
WH happen-3SG.PRES last give-3SG.PRES PRON.1PL DEF plan of attack
 
v-ditr-iobPP│suAg_obTh_iobRec│TRANSFER
 
Jack supplied fruit to the store
 
v-ditr-iobRefl│suAg_iobBen_obTh│AVAILING
 
he gave himself time
 
he give-PAST REFL time
 
v-ditr-iobRefl│suAg_iobPermissee_obTh│PERMISSION
 
Kathy allowed herself three cakes
 
K allow-PAST REFL three cakes
 
v-ditr-obDECL│suAg_iobIntrlctr_obThsit│COMMUNICATION
 
Kathy tells me that he often comes
 
K tell-3SG.PRES PRON.1SG COMP PRON.3SG often come-PRES
 
v-ditr-obEqIobInf│suAg_iobPermissee_obThsit│COMMITMENT
 
Kathy allows him to come
 
K. allow-3SG.PRES PRON.3SG INF come
 
v-ditr-obEqSuInf│suAg_iobIntrlctr_obThsit│COMMITMENT
 
Kathy promises him to come
 
K. promise-3SG.PRES PRON.3SG INF come
 
v-ditr-obPP│suAg_iobRec_obTh│TRANSFER
 
Jack supplied us with fruits
 
v-ditr-obWH│suAg_iobIntrlctr_obThsit│COMMUNICATION
 
he tells me who comes
 
PRON.3SG tell-3SG.PRES PRON.1SG WH come-3SG.PRES
 
v-ditr-obYN│suAg_iobIntrlctr_obThsit│COMMUNICATION
 
he tells me whether they come
 
PRON.3SG tell-3SG.PRES PRON.1PL whether they come
 
v-ditr-iobRefl_obEqIobInf│suAg_iobPermissee_obThsit│COMMITMENT
 
Kathy allowed herself to come
 
K. allow-3SG.PRES REFL INF come
 
v-ditr-obEqIobBareinf│suAg_iobInterloc_obThsit│COMMITMENT
 
Kathy bade him come
 
K bid-3SG.PAST PRON.3SG come
 
v-ditr-obEqIobBareinf│suAg_iobPermissee_obThsit│PERMISSION
 
Kathy let him come
 
K let PRON.3SG come
 
v-ditr-suWH_obWH│suThsit_iobPrcvr_obThsit│ASSESS
 
who comes first does not show us who comes last
 
WH come-3SG.PRES first do-NEG show PRON.1PL WH come-3SG.PRES last
 
v-ditr-suYN_obYN│suThsit_iobPrcvr_obThsit│ASSESS
 
whether he comes first will show us whether they have a plan
 
YN PRON.3SG come-3SG.PRES FUT show PRON.1PL WH PRON.3PL have DET plan
 
v-ditrComp-cmpDECL│suAg_iobC  omit_obTh│CONDITIONALTRANSFER
 
I bet you fifty cents he won’t come
 
PRON.1SG bet-PRES fifty cents PRON.3SG  FUT.NEG come
 
v-ditrExpnSu-expnEqInf│obMeas│ASSESS
 
it took me two hours to get there
 
PRON.EXPL take-PAST PRON.1SG two hours INF get there
 
v-ditrImpltransf│suCsr_iobAff_obTh│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY
 
The book cost me ten dollars
 
v-ditrObl│suAg_iobRec_obTh_oblMeas│TRANSFER
 
Jack sold me the car for fifty dollars
 
J sell-PAST PRON.1SG DEF car for 50 dollars
 
v-ditrObl│suAg_iobRec_obTh_oblTrgt│TRANSFER
 
Jack paid Jane fifty dollars for the car
 
v-ditrObl-iobPP│suAg_obTh_iobRec_oblMeas│TRANSFER
 
Jack sold the car to Jane for fifty dollars
 
J sell-PAST DEF car to J for fifty dollars
 
v-ditrObl-iobPP│suAg_obTh_iobRec_oblTrgt│TRANSFER
 
Jack paid fifty dollars to Jane for the car
 
  
Copula:
 
v-copAdj│suExper│SEMELFACTIVE 
 
Jane is startled
 
Jane be.SG.PRES startled
 
v-copAdj│suTh│PROPTY
 
he is kind
 
he be-PRES kind
 
v-copAdj-suAbsGer│suThsit│ASSESS
 
getting money for political favours is disgusting
 
get-GER money PREP political favours be-PRES disgusting
 
running is healthy
 
run-GER be-3SG.PRES  healthy
 
v-copAdj-suDECL│suThsit│ASSESS
 
that he came at all is surprising
 
COMP PRON.3SG at all be-3SG.PRES surprising
 
v-copAdj-suInf│suThsit│ASSESS
 
to err is human
 
INF err be-3SG.PRES  human
 
v-copAdj-suWH│suThsit│ASSESS
 
who will comes is uncertain
 
WH FUT come be-3SG.PRES  uncertain
 
v-copAdj-suYN│suThsit│ASSESS
 
whether he comes is uncertain
 
WH PRON.3SG come-3SG.PRES be-3SG.PRES uncertain
 
v-copAdjObl-oblEqSuGer│suAg_oblActivity│HABITUALACTIVITY
 
Jane is busy (these days) with writing
 
Jane  busy PREP write-GER
 
v-copN│suTh│PROPTY
 
he is a fool
 
PRON.3SG be-3SG.PRES fool
 
v-copN-suAbsger│suThsit│ASSESS
 
seeing him was a pleasure
 
see-GER PRON.3SG be-3SG.PAST DET pleasure
 
v-copN-suDECL│suThsit│ASSESS
 
that he came was a shock
 
COMP PRON.3SG come-PAST be-PAST DET shock
 
v-copN-suWH│suThsit│ASSESS
 
who should go is the question
 
WH AUX go be-3SG.PRES DEF question
 
v-copN-suYN│suThsit│ASSESS
 
whether he will come is a question
 
YN PRON.3SG FUT come be-3SG.PAST DET question
 
v-copPP│suTh│ASSESS
 
the performance was beyond belief
 
DEF performance be-3SG.PAST beyond belief
 
v-copPP│suTh│EXHIBACTIVITY
 
The performance is in progress
 
DEF performance be.3SG.PRES in progress
 
v-copPP-suDECL│suThsit│ASSESS
 
that he came was beyond our expectations
 
COMP PRON.3SG come-PAST be.3SG.PAST PRON.POSS.1PL expectations
 
v-copPP-suWH│suThsit│ASSESS
 
who may perform is under consideration
 
WH AUX perform be.3SG.PRES under consideration
 
v-copPP-suYN│suThsit│ASSESS
 
whether he may perform is under discussion
 
YN PRON.3SG AUX perform be.3SG.PRES under discussion
 
v-copPredprtcl│suTh│ASSESS
 
The man is like a god
 
DEF man be.3SG.PRES like DET god
 
The result was as desired
 
DEF result be.3SG.PAST as desired
 
v-copPredprtcl-suAbsinf│suThsit│ASSESS
 
to be there was like a dream
 
INF be there was like a dream
 
v-copPredprtcl-suAbsger│suThsit│ASSESS
 
being there was like a dream
 
be-GER there be.3SG.PAST like DET dream
 
v-copPredprtcl-suWH│suThsit│ASSESS
 
what he said was off the mark
 
WH PRON.3SG say-PAST be.3SG.PAST off DEF mark
 
v-copExpnAdj-expnDECL│expnThsitɲASSESS
 
it is sad that he leaves
 
PRON.EXPL be.3SG.PRES sad COMP PRON.3SG leaves
 
v-copExpnAdj-expnAbsinf│expnThsit│ASSESS
 
it is great to be healthy
 
it is great INF be healthy
 
v-copExpnAdj-expnYN│expnThsit╠ASSESS
 
it is uncertain whether he comes
 
PRON.EXPL is uncertain whether he comes
 
v-copExpnAdj-expnWH│expnThsit│ASSESS
 
it is uncertain who came
 
PRON.EXPL is uncertain who come-PAST
 
v-copExpnN-expnAbsinf│expnThsit│ASSESS
 
It is a chore to chop wood
 
PRON.EXPL be.3SG.PRES DET chore INF chop wood
 
v-copExpnN-expnDECL│expnThsit│ASSESS
 
it was a disappointment that he failed
 
PRON.EXPL be.PAST DET disappointment COMP PRON.3SG fail-PAST
 
v-copExpnN-expnWH│expnThsit│ASSESS
 
it is a question who will come
 
PRON.EXPL be DET question WH FUT come
 
v-copExpnN-expnYN│expnThsit│ASSESS
 
it is a question whether he will come
 
PRON.EXPL be.3SG.PRES DET question YN PRON.3SG FUT come
 
v-copExpnNPredprt-expnAbsger│expnThsit│ASSESS
 
there is an art to eating spaghetti
 
PRON.EXPL be.3SG.PRES DET art to eat-GER spaghetti
 
v-copExpnPP-expnDECL│expnThsit│ASSESS
 
it was in the third round that he lost
 
PRON.EXPL be.PAST in DEF third round COMP PRON.3SG lose-PAST
 
v-copExpnPredprtPP-expnDECL│expnThsit│ASSESS
 
It is out of the question that he comes
 
PRON.EXPL be.PAST out of DEF question COMP PRON.3SG come-3SG.PRES
 
v-copExpnPredprtcl-expnDECL│expnThsit│ASSESS
 
it is as well that he knows
 
PRON.EXPL be as well COMP he knows
 
v-copImpersAdjLoc│ASSESS
 
It is nice here
 
PRON.EXPL be.PRES nice here
 
v-copImpersAdjLoc-locPP│ASSESS
 
It is nice in Trondheim
 
PRON.EXPL be.PRES nice in T
 
v-copIdN│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY 
 
this is the man
 
PRON.DEICT is DEF man
 
v-copIdAbsinf│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY
 
the task is to finish it
 
DEF task be INF finish it
 
v-copIdDECL│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY
 
the problem is that he likes herring
 
DEF problem is COMP he likes herring
 
v-copIdWH│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY
 
the problem is who gets it
 
DEF problem is WH gets it
 
v-copIdYN│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY
 
the problem is whether he eats meat
 
DEF problem is YN he eat-PRES meat
 
v-copIdN-suDECL│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY
 
that he picks up the letter is the signal
 
COMP PRON.3SG picks up DEF letter be.3SG.PRES DEF signal
 
v-copIdN-suAbsger│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY
 
eating it is the last step
 
eat-GER it be.PRES DEF last step
 
v-copIdAbsinf-suAbsinf│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY
 
to eat hot dogs is to support the global economy
 
INF eat hot dogs be.3SG.PRES is INF support DEF global economy
 
v-copIdAbsger-suAbsger│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY
 
Eating local food is supporting local culture
 
Eat-GER local food be.3SG.PAST support-GER local culture
 
  
Auxiliary verbs:
+
[[Category:Valence by language|English]]
axv_intr-av1mod
+
he can come
+
As a ‘root’ modal, this construction can also be represented as v-intrAuxmodComp-compEqBareinf-suAg_compThsit, and as an
+
‘epistemic’ modal, as v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scBareinf (see above)
+
axv_intr-vPart│PERFECT
+
he has come
+
3SG have.PRES come.PRFPART
+
axv-intr-vPart│suAgmover│MOTION
+
the boy is running
+
DEF boy AUX run-PRESPART
+

Latest revision as of 09:42, 7 December 2017

LIST OF ENGLISH VERB CONSTRUCTION TYPES

Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu and Lars Hellan

This list is built on the system explained at Verbconstructions cross-linguistically - Introduction, and partly modeled on the Norwegian list presented in Norwegian Appendix



Intransitive

TEMPLATE NOTATION                                            ENGLISH EXAMPLE
v-intr│suAg│ACTIVITY                                         the boy jumps
v-intr│suAg│SEMELFACTIVE                                     the boy jumps
v-intr│suAg│COMPLETEDMONODEVMNT                              Jack ate					
v-intr│suSens│PROTR-SENSATION                                the boy listens				
v-intr│suTh│PROCESS                                          the ice melts
v-intr│suTh│SUSTAINEDPHENOM                                  the rain continued
v-intr│suThmover│MOTION                                      the ball rolls 				
v-intr-suAbsGer│suThsit│ASSESS                               getting money for political favours stinks
v-intr-suNrg│PHENOM                                          it rains				
v-intrAdv│suAg│ACHIEVEMENT                                   he functions well
v-intrAdv│suTh│PROPTY                                        the machine functions well
v-intrObl│suAg_oblInstr│ACTIVITY                             Jane wrote with a pen
v-intrObl│suAg_oblTrgt│ACTIVITY                              Jane wrote to John
v-intrObl-oblEndpt│suAgmover│MOTIONDIRECTED                  John walked into the room
v-intrObl│suExp_oblCsr│EMOTIONCAUSED                         they grieved over the death
v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│PHENOM                                 stars appear in the heavens
v-intrObl-oblEqSuGer│suAg_oblContent│ASSESS                  Jane believes in speaking her mind
v-intrObl│suPurelyorient_oblTrgt│ORIENT                      the arrow points to the north 	
v-intrObl│suPath_oblTrgt│PATHCONSTELLATION                   the road goes towards the north
v-intrAdvPath│suLocomoevent│LOCOMODEVELOPMENT                the tour goes northwards 		
v-intrAdvPresent-suExpn│suThmover│MOTIONPRESENTED            there goes the ball
v-intrComp│suCog_compThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE             Kathy thought I would come	
v-intrComp-compYN│suCog_compThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE      Kathy wonders whether I will come
v-intrComp-compWH│suCog_compThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE      Kathy wonders who will come
v-intrExlnk-ExlnkDECL                                        it appears that he will come 
v-intrExpn-expnAbsinf│ASSESS                                 it helps to sit down 		
v-intrExpn-expnDECL_suNrg│PHENOM                             it happens that the earth is round	
v-intrExpn-expnEquat│ASSESS                                  it looks as if he did it	
v-intrExpn-expnWH_suNrg                                      it is a question who comes
v-intrExpn-expnYN                                            it is a question whether he can do it
v-intrImplMotion│suPath│CROSSINGPATHS                        their paths crossed
v-intrObRais-suNrg_obRaisInf│obThsit│EXHIBACT                he appears to come
v-intrObl│suAg_oblAffincrem│NONCOMPLETED_MONODEVMNT          she nibbles at the apple
v-intrObl│suAg_oblLoc│LOCATION                               she lives in London
v-intrObl│suAg_oblTopic│ACTIVITY-COMMUNICATION               I talk about Jane
v-intrObl│suAg_oblTrgt│EMISSION                              he vomited on the tablecloth
v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│INCHOATIONLOCATED                      a crack appears in the glass
v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│LOCATION                               Boston is in Massachusetts
v-intrObl│suTh_oblLoc│LOCATION                               the town lies in the valley
v-intrObl│suTh_oblPoss│POSSESSION                            the book belongs to Jane
v-intrObl_suWH│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND                          who comes depends on you
v-intrObl-suWH_oblWH│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND                    who comes depends on what you do
v-intrObl-suYN│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND                          whether he comes depends on you
v-intrObl-suYN_oblYN│suThsit_oblTh│DEPEND                    whether he comes depends on whether you come
v-intrObl-oblAbsGer│suAg_oblContent│ACTIVITY-ABOUTNESS       they talk about travelling to Mars
v-intrObl-oblDeclNom│suAg_oblContent│ACTIVITY                they talk about it being too late
v-intrObl-oblEqSuInf│suAg_oblContent│ACTIVITY-PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE  he hopes to come 
v-intrObl-oblInf│suAg_oblEventcont│CAUSATION	              we arranged for him to get a visa
v-intrOblExpn-suNrg_expnYN                                   it depends on you whether he will win 
v-intrOblPath│suAgmover_OblEndpt│MOTIONtoENDPT               a man runs to here
v-intrOblScpr-scSuNrg_scInf│oblCog_scThsit│PERCPT            he seems to me to be in a good mood
v-intrPrtcl-suNrg│TELIC-PHENOM                               it clears up
v-intrScPr-scPrAdj│suSens│PROTR-EXPER                        the boy feels cold
v-intrScPr-suBPspec_scPrAdj│suThloc│PARTWHOLEEXPER           my back feels cold
v-intrScPrExpn-ScPrAdj_ExpnDECL                              it is essential that he comes
v-intrPresnt│presTh                                          there lived a man
v-intrPresntLoc│presntAg_advLoc│POSTURELOC                   there sits a man in the chair
v-intrPresnt-suNrg_presntREL│presThsit                       there comes a time when nothing works
v-intrPrtcl│suAg│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY                           Jack keeps on
v-intrPrtcl│suTh│SUSTAINEDPHENOM	                     the rain keeps on
v-intrPrtclGer│suAg│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY                        Jack kept on running
v-intrPrtclObl│suAg_obl│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY                    Jack kept on with his running
v-intrScpr-scAdj│suThmover│EXHIBPROPTY	                     the water runs clear (formerly it didn’t)
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scAdj│EXHIBPROPTY                         the boy seems sick
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scInf                                     he seems to believe it
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scAdj│EXHIBPROPTY                         the boy seems sensible
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scInf│EXHIBPROPTY                         the boy seems to be a leader
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scPP│EXHIBPROPTY                          the boy seems in good shape
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scPredprtcl│EXHIBPROPTY                   the boy appears as a hero in the report
v-intrScpr-scSuArgCsd_scAdv│suTh│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT   the coffee boils away
v-intrScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scAdv│INCREMRESULT                     the cup runs over
v-intrScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scAdv│INCREMRESULT                     the shore eroded away
v-intrScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scPP│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT         the house burned to a cinder
v-intrScpr-suNrg_scEquat│RESULT                              it looks as though he came
v-intrScpr-scAdj│suTh│PROPTYDYN                              the house stands empty
v-intrLghtScpr-scSuNrg_scPredprtcl                           the boy emerged as a suspect 
v-intrLghtScpr-scSuNrgCsd_scAdj│INCREMRESULT                 the company goes broke 
v-intrPrtclScpr-scSuNrg_scAdj│EXHIBPROPTY                    the boy ended up sick
v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scPredprtcl│EXHIBPROPTY                   the boy sounds like a parrot
v-intrObl│suAg_oblTrg│COMPARISON	                     the boy runs like a donkey
v-intrWH│PHENOM                                              a time comes when nothing works
v-intrAuxmodComp-compEqBareinf│suAg_compThsit                Jane can paddle
v-intrAuxmodScpr-suDir_scSuNrg_scAdv                         he must go out

Transitive

TEMPLATE NOTATION                                            ENGLISH EXAMPLE
v-tr│suAg_oblAffincrem│MONODEVMNT                            she eats the apple
v-tr│suAg_obAff│CONTACTFORCEFUL                              Jack beats John
v-tr│suAg_obAffincrem│COMPLETED_MONODEVMNT                   Kathy ate the cake
v-tr│suAgmover_obPathobj│MOTIONALONGLINE                     Kathy follows the path
v-tr│suAgmover_obAgmover│MOTIONCROSSPATHS                    the boy crosses the demonstration parade
v-tr│suAgmover_obEndpnt│MOTIONtoENDPT                        Kathy reaches the top
v-tr│suAgmover_obStartpt│MOTIONDIRECTED                      Kathy left the room
v-tr│suAg_obEjct│EJECTION                                    Kathy throws the ball
v-tr│suAg_obEjctinobj│EJECTION                               she shoots plastic bullets
v-tr│suAg_obEventcont│ACTIVITY                               she sang a beautiful song
v-tr│suAg_obExp│EMOTIONCAUSED                                Kathy frightens Jane
v-tr│suAgmover_obLengthcont│MOTIONEXTENDING                  the boy walks two kilometers
v-tr│suAg_obTh│REPRESENTING                                  Kathy mentions Jane
v-tr│suAg_obThincrem│COMPLETED_MONODEVMNT                    Kathy read the book
v-tr│suAg_obThmover│MOTIONCAUSED                             Kathy sends the parcel
v-tr│suAgmover_obViapnt│MOTIONviaVIAPT                       Kathy passes the church
v-tr│suCog_obTh│COGNITION                                    Kathy knows the answer
v-tr│suComitmover_obAgmover│MOTIONPARALLEL                   the boy accompanies the president
v-tr│suExp_obTrgt│EMOTION                                    Jane likes horses
v-tr│suOrientedline_obOrientedline│CROSSINGPATHS             the stroke cuts the line
v-tr│suOrientedline_obOrientedline│PARALLELPATHS             the stroke follows the line
v-tr│suPathobj_obEndpnt│EXTENSIONtoENDPT                     the path reaches the top
v-tr│suPathobj_obViapnt│EXTENSIONviaVIAPT                    the path passes the church
v-tr│suSens_obTh│SENSATION                                   Kathy sees Jane
v-tr│suPoss_obPossd│POSSESSION                               Jack owns a car
v-tr│suTh_obBen│PENDINGSTATE                                 an accident awaits him
v-tr│suTh_obExp│EMOTIONCAUSED                                the book depresses Jane
v-tr│suTh_obLengthcont│EXTENDING                             the track measures 400 meters
v-tr│suTh_obSens│SENSATIONCAUSED                             the stone hurt Jane
v-tr│suTh_obTimecont│LASTING                                 the film lasts 5 hours
v-tr│suTh_obWeightcont│WEIGHING                              the stone weighs 5 kg
v-trImpltransf│suAg_obRec│RENDERINGinPOSITION                he dressed the boy
v-trImpltransfObl│suAg_obTh_oblLoc│RENDERINGinPOSITION       he spilled water on the tablecloth
v-trImpltransfObl-OblRefl│suAg_obTh_oblTrgt│RENDERINGinPOSITION  he spilled water on himself
v-trImpltransf-obRefl│suAg_obPat│RENDERINGinPOSITION         he dressed himself
v-tr-suGer│suEffector_obAff│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE          getting money for political favours disgusts me
v-tr-suAbsger│suThsit_obAff│EXPERIENCECAUSED               getting money for political favours disgusts me
v-tr-suAbsger│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE            building highrises interests Kathy
v-tr-suGer│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE               my coming astonishes Kathy
v-tr-suGer_obDECL│suThsit_obThsit│CAUSATION                  Jane’s coming entails that you must come
v-tr-suGer_obYN│suThsit_obThsit│CAUSATION                    Jane’s coming determines whether you come
v-tr-suWH│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE                who comes interests Kathy
v-tr-suWH_obWH│suThsit_obThsit│CAUSATION                     who comes decides who will win
v-tr-suYN│suThsit_obCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE                whether I come interests Kathy
v-tr-obAbsger│suAg_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE             Kathy considers coming
v-tr-obDECL│suAg_obEventcont│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY      we arranged that he got a visa
v-tr-obDECL│suCog_obThsit│COGNITION                          Kathy knows that I came
v-tr-obDECL│suCog_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE              I assume that he is qualified
v-tr-obDECL│suSens_obThsit│SENSATION                         Kathy sees that Jane sleeps
v-tr-obEqInf│suAg_obThsit│ACTIVITY                           Kathy tries to come
v-tr-obRefl│suAg_obAff│AFFECTING                             Kathy washes herself
v-trExpnSu-expnDECL│obCog_expnThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE    it worries me that he hasn’t come
v-trExpnSu-expnCOND│obCog_expnThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE    it will not surprise me if he comes
v-trExpnSu-expnEqInf│obCog_expnSuThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE it pleases me to come
v-trExpnSu│obMeas_expnAbsinf││ASSESS                         it takes two hours to go there
v-trExpnOb-expnCOND│suCog_expnThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE    I will deplore it if you come
v-trExpnOb-expnAbsinf│suAg_expnThsit│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY  we make it impossible to come
v-trNrf-obReflExpl│suAgmover│MOTION                          the boy raised himself
v-trNrfPrt_obReflExpl│suAgmover│MOTIONDIRECTED               the boy pulled himself up			
v-trNrfAdv-obReflExpl│suAg│ACTIVITY                          he behaved himself nicely
v-trNrfObl-obReflExpl_oblEqSuGer│suAg_oblThsit               Jane resigned herself to waiting
v-trNrfPath-obReflExpl│suAgmover│MOTION                      he pushes himself forward
v-trNrfPrtcl-obRefl│suAg│ACTIVITY                            Kathy messed herself up
v-trNrfScpr-obReflExpl_scSuNrg_scAdj│suAg                    he made himself sick
v-trNrfScpr-obReflExpl_scSuNrg_scAdj│suAg│INCREMENTALRESULT  he shouted himself hoarse
v-trObl│suAg_obTh_oblIntrloc│COMMUNICATION                   he told the news to Kathy
v-trObl-obRefl│suAg_obTh_oblCom│ACHVMNT                      he allied himself with the boy
v-trObl-obRefl_oblBPob│suAg_obAff_oblThloc│PARTWHOLEAFFECTING Jack scratched himself on the back
v-trObl-obReflExpl_oblBPob│suAff_oblThloc│PARTWHOLEAFFECTING Jack cut himself on the knee
v-trObl-oblBPob│suAg_obAff_oblThloc│PARTWHOLEAFFECTING       I kicked Jack in the leg
v-trObl-oblDECL│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT             he told Jack that he had come
v-trObl-oblPP│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT               he told Jack about his coming
v-trObl-oblYN│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT               he asked Jack whether he came
v-trPassinf-EqSuInf│suAg_obIntrloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT         he begged me to be allowed to come
v-trObl-oblInf│suAg_obInterloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT             he begged me to go			
v-trObl-obRefl_oblEqSuGer│suAg_obTh_oblThsit│COMMITMENT      he commits himself to coming
v-trObl-oblPP│suAg_obInterloc_oblThsit│LOCUTACT              we tell the children about building houses
v-trOblScpr-scSuNrg_scN│oblCog_scThsit│PERCPT                he seems to me an idiot
v-trOblScpr-scSuNrg_scInf│oblCog_scThsit│PERCPT              he seems to me to be an idiot
v-trPath│suAg_obPurelyorient│ORIENT                          he directs the arrow to the north
v-trPath│suAg_obOrientedline│LINESITUATING                   he draws the line to the left	
v-trPath│suAgmover_obLocomoevent│LOCOMOCONDUCTION            they take the tour to the north
v-trPath│suAgmover_obOrientedline│USINGPATH                  the boy will take the path toward the river
v-trPath│suAgmover_obInstrmover│USINGVEHICLE                 the boy will take the bus to town
v-trPrtcl│suExper_obTh│EXHIBATTITUDE                         Kathy approves of your choice
v-trPrtcl│suCog_obTh│COGNITION                               Kathy found out the answer
v-trPrtcl-obDECLcmp│suCog_obThsit│COGNITION                  Kathy found out that I came
v-trPrtcl-obRefl│suAg_obTh│COMPLETEDACTIVITY                 Kathy cleaned herself up			
v-trPrtcl-obYN-suCog_obThsit-COGNITION                       Kathy found out whether they came
v-trPrtcl-obWH│suCog_obThsit│COGNITION                       Kathy found out who came
v-trScpr-scBareinf│suSens_obThsit│SENSATION                  I saw him run
v-trScpr-obRefl_scSuNrg_scPassinf│suAg_obTrgt│PERMISSION     they let themselves be seen
v-trScpr-scGer│suAg_obTime_scThsit│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY         we spent a week doing it			
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scInf│suCog_scThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE   I assume him to be qualified
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scGer│suSens│SENSATION                      I saw him running	(he was running)
v-trScpr-scEqSuGer│suSens_obTh│SENSATION                     I saw him running	(I was running)
v-trScpr-scObNrg_obRefl_scGer│suSens_obThsit│SENSATION       he felt himself falling			
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scAdj│suCog│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE           she considers Jack qualified	
v-trScpr-scObNrg_obRefl_scAdj│suCog_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE  she considers herself qualified
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scPredprtcl│suAg_obThsit│PROPOSITIONALATTITUDE  they perceived him as qualified 
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scN│suAg_obThsit│REPRESENT                  she calls Jane a friend		
v-trScpr-scObNrg_obRefl_scN│suAg_obThsit│REPRESENT           she calls herself a friend
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scBareinf│suAg│PERMISSION                   they let the man sing
v-trScpr-scObNrg_scPassInf│suAg│PERMISSION                   they let the song be sung
v-trScpr-scObArgConcurr_scAdj│suAg_obAffincrem│CONCURRSTATE  he drank the coffee cold 
v-trScpr-scObArgConcurr_scPP│suAg_obThvehcl│CONCURRSTATE     he drove the car in good condition	
v-trScpr-scObArgConcurr_scPredprtcl│suAg_obThvehcl│CONCURRSTATE  he drove the car as an airport limousine
v-trScpr-scObArgRes_scAdj│suCsr_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY she pounded the soil flat
v-trScpr-scObNrgRes_scPP│suCsr_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY  she put the house into good condition
v-trScpr-scObNrgRes_scPP│suCsr_scCsd│PLACEMENT               she put the shoes behind the door
v-trScpr-scObArgCsd_scAdv│suAg_obAff_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT   he kicked the ball away
v-trScpr-scObNrgCsd_scAdj│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT   they drank the house dry
v-trScpr-scObNrgCsd_obRefl_scAdj│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT   she ran herself ragged	
v-trScprShft-scObArgCsd_scAdv│suAg_obAff_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  he pushed away the branches
v-trScpr-obDir_obRefl_scObNrgCsd_scAdv│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  he gets himself away	
v-trScpr-obPossp_scObNrgCsd_scAdv│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  he sang his sorrows away 
v-trScprShft-obPossp_scObNrgCsd_scAdv│suAg_scCsd│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  she wiped away her tears

Ditransitive

TEMPLATE NOTATION                                            ENGLISH EXAMPLE
v-ditr│suAg_iobRec_obTh│TRANSFER                             I gave him the book			
v-ditr│suAg_iobBen_obTh│SUSTAINEDSTATE                       he owes her a book
v-trAdv│suThsit_iobAg_advTime│SUSTAINEDACTIVITY              the job took us all day
v-ditr-suAbsger│suThsit_iobBen_obThabst│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT  taking walks gives you strength
v-ditr-suGer│suThsit_iobBen_obTh│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGEVENT   his singing gives Kathy a headache
v-ditr-suYN│suThsit_iobPrcvr_obTh│ASSESS            whether he comes first will give us our plan of attack
v-ditr-suWH│suThsit_iobPrcvr_obThʧASSESS                     what happens last gives us the plan of attack
v-ditr-iobPP│suAg_obTh_iobRec│TRANSFER                       Jack supplied fruit to the store
v-ditr-iobRefl│suAg_iobBen_obTh│AVAILING                     he gave himself time			
v-ditr-iobRefl│suAg_iobPermissee_obTh│PERMISSION             Kathy allowed herself three cakes		
v-ditr-obDECL│suAg_iobIntrlctr_obThsit│COMMUNICATION         Kathy tells me that he often comes
v-ditr-obEqIobInf│suAg_iobPermissee_obThsit│COMMITMENT       Kathy allows him to come			
v-ditr-obEqSuInf│suAg_iobIntrlctr_obThsit│COMMITMENT         Kathy promises him to come
v-ditr-obPP│suAg_iobRec_obTh│TRANSFER                        Jack supplied us with fruits
v-ditr-obWH│suAg_iobIntrlctr_obThsit│COMMUNICATION           he tells me who comes		
v-ditr-obYN│suAg_iobIntrlctr_obThsit│COMMUNICATION           he tells me whether they come		
v-ditr-iobRefl_obEqIobInf│suAg_iobPermissee_obThsit│COMMITMENT    Kathy allowed herself to come
v-ditr-obEqIobBareinf│suAg_iobInterloc_obThsit│COMMITMENT    Kathy bade him come	
v-ditr-obEqIobBareinf│suAg_iobPermissee_obThsit│PERMISSION   Kathy let him come
v-ditr-suWH_obWH│suThsit_iobPrcvr_obThsit│ASSESS           who comes first does not show us who comes last
v-ditr-suYN_obYN│suThsit_iobPrcvr_obThsit│ASSESS   whether he smiles will show us whether they have a plan
v-ditrComp-cmpDECL│suAg_iobComit_obTh│CONDITIONALTRANSFER     I bet you fifty cents he won’t come	
v-ditrExpnSu-expnEqInf│obMeas│ASSESS                          it took me two hours to get there
v-ditrImpltransf│suCsr_iobAff_obTh│CAUSATIONwithCAUSINGENTITY    the book cost me ten dollars
v-ditrObl│suAg_iobRec_obTh_oblMeas│TRANSFER                   he sold me the car for fifty dollars
v-ditrObl│suAg_iobRec_obTh_oblTrgt│TRANSFER                   Jack paid Jane fifty dollars for the car
v-ditrObl-iobPP│suAg_obTh_iobRec_oblMeas│TRANSFER             Jack sold the car to Jane for fifty dollars
v-ditrObl-iobPP│suAg_obTh_iobRec_oblTrgt│TRANSFER             Jack paid fifty dollars to Jane for the car

Copula

TEMPLATE NOTATION                                            ENGLISH EXAMPLE
v-copAdj│suExper│SEMELFACTIVE                                Jane is startled
v-copAdj│suTh│PROPTY                                         he is kind			
v-copAdj-suAbsGer│suThsit│ASSESS                             running is healthy
v-copAdj-suDECL│suThsit│ASSESS                               that he came at all is surprising
v-copAdj-suInf│suThsit│ASSESS                                to err is human			
v-copAdj-suWH│suThsit│ASSESS                                 who will comes is uncertain		
v-copAdj-suYN│suThsit│ASSESS                                 whether he comes is uncertain
v-copAdjObl-oblEqSuGer│suAg_oblActivity│HABITUALACTIVITY     Jane is busy (these days) with writing
v-copN│suTh│PROPTY                                           he is a fool		
v-copN-suAbsger│suThsit│ASSESS                               seeing him was a pleasure
v-copN-suDECL│suThsit│ASSESS                                 that he came was a shock		
v-copN-suWH│suThsit│ASSESS                                   who should go is the question		
v-copN-suYN│suThsit│ASSESS                                   whether he will come is a question
v-copPP│suTh│ASSESS                                          the performance was beyond belief
v-copPP│suTh│EXHIBACTIVITY                                   the performance is in progress
v-copPP-suDECL│suThsit│ASSESS                                that he came was beyond our expectations
v-copPP-suWH│suThsit│ASSESS                                  who may perform is under consideration 
v-copPP-suYN│suThsit│ASSESS                                  whether he may perform is under discussion 
v-copPredprtcl│suTh│ASSESS	                              the result was as desired
v-copPredprtcl-suAbsinf│suThsit│ASSESS                       to be there was like a dream 	
v-copPredprtcl-suAbsger│suThsit│ASSESS                       being there was like a dream
v-copPredprtcl-suWH│suThsit│ASSESS                           what he said was off the mark 
v-copExpnAdj-expnDECL│expnThsitɲASSESS                       it is sad that he leaves			
v-copExpnAdj-expnAbsinf│expnThsit│ASSESS                     it is great to be healthy 	
v-copExpnAdj-expnYN│expnThsit╠ASSESS                         it is uncertain whether he comes 		
v-copExpnAdj-expnWH│expnThsit│ASSESS                         it is uncertain who came 	
v-copExpnN-expnAbsinf│expnThsit│ASSESS                       it is a chore to chop wood
v-copExpnN-expnDECL│expnThsit│ASSESS                         it was a disappointment that he failed
v-copExpnN-expnWH│expnThsit│ASSESS                           it is a question who will come 
v-copExpnN-expnYN│expnThsit│ASSESS                           it is a question whether he will come 
v-copExpnNPredprt-expnAbsger│expnThsit│ASSESS                there is an art to eating spaghetti 
v-copExpnPP-expnDECL│expnThsit│ASSESS                        it was in the third round that he lost
v-copExpnPredprtPP-expnDECL│expnThsit│ASSESS                 it is out of the question that he comes
v-copExpnPredprtcl-expnDECL│expnThsit│ASSESS                 it is as well that he knows 
v-copImpersAdjLoc│ASSESS                                     it is nice here 
v-copImpersAdjLoc-locPP│ASSESS                               it is nice in Trondheim 
v-copIdN│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                             this is the man 			
v-copIdAbsinf│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                        the task is to finish it 
v-copIdDECL│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                          the problem is that he likes herring 
v-copIdWH│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                            the problem is who gets it
v-copIdYN│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                            the problem is whether he eats meat 
v-copIdN-suDECL│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                      that he picks up the letter is the signal
v-copIdN-suAbsger│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY                    eating it is the last step		
v-copIdAbsinf-suAbsinf│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY            to eat hot dogs is to support the global economy
v-copIdAbsger-suAbsger│suIdfd_scIdfng│IDENTITY               eating local food is supporting local culture


Auxiliary verb

With focus on main verb:

axv_intr-av1mod                                              he can come
axv_intr-vPart│PERFECT                                       he has come			
axv-intr-vPart│suAgmover│MOTION                              the boy is running

As a ‘root’ modal:

v-intrAuxmodComp-compEqBareinf-suAg_compThsit                he can come

As an ‘epistemic’ modal:

v-intrScpr-scSuNrg_scBareinf                                 he can come