Past and Perfective patterns in Norwegian
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Past and Perfective patterns
Regular formation of Past tense follows the following patterns:
A. When infinitive ends in a non-stressed-e: 1. -te as in ropte (infinitive rope 'shout') 2. -et as in hoppet (infinitive hoppe 'jump') 3. -de as in eide (infinitive eie 'own')
B. When infinitive ends in a stressed vowel: -dde as in skjedde (infinitive skje 'happen')
Many verbs can alternate between A1 and A2, and between A2 and A3.
Regular formation of Perfect Participle follows these patterns (always preceded by a form of ha 'have'):
A. When infinitive ends in a non-stressed-e: 1. -t as in ropt (infinitive rope 'shout') 2. -et as in hoppet (infinitive hoppe 'jump') 3. -d as in eid (infinitive eie 'own')
B. When infinitive ends in a stressed vowel: -dd as in skjedd (infinitive skje 'happen')
Thus, the pattern of A2 is the same as for Past tense, in the other cases Perfect is obtained from Past by omitting the last -e.
Regular formation of Passive Participle follows exactly the same patterns as for Perfect Participle (in sentences always preceded by a form of bli' 'become').
For irregular, also called strong, forms, please consult a dictionary.
Note that in many cases when a verb is so-called 'strong', its perfect/passive participle form follows a regular pattern, while its past form is irregular.
For further remarks and illustration, see Preterite/Past tense in Norwegian.