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Annotating Runyankore-Rukiga

Revision as of 13:03, 1 June 2010 by Allen Asiimwe (Talk | contribs)

Runyankore-Rukiga refers to two of the four closely related languages of Uganda which form part of a new standardized language of Uganda together with Runyoro and Rutooro. Sometimes Runyakitara is used to refer to the standardized form of these four languages; see for example the following still incomplete wikipedia article .

Here we discuss questions related to the annotation of Runyankore-Rukiga texts and sentence collections in TypeCraft. The material is annotated by Allen Asiimwe who is a lecturer at Makerere University. She is a speaker of Rukiga. In addition Justus Turamyomwe and Misah Natumanya both graduate students at the Linguistic Department at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU annotate.

Annotating in TypeCraft

The following example shows a standard TypeCraft annotation. TypeCraft uses three tiers for linguistic annotation: a translational tier, a gloss tier and a part-of-speech tier. When interlinear glosses (IG) are exported from TypeCraft the translational and the gloss tier are collapsed for presentational reasons. You need to have a login to TypeCraft in order to annotate. Simply write and e-mail using the mail address given on the [Main Page]

(1)


The free morphemes aha and omu

The free forms aha and omu are derived from the locative classes ha- and mu- via the affixation of an initial vowel. Both forms may occur as part of a locative expression, as determiners or as pronouns. In the example below aha is categorised as a preposition. On of the projects the Runyankore-Rukiga group is working on is to develop a better understanding of the role that both elements play in the grammar of Runyankore-Rukiga.

The following two phrases taken from the TC-database represent one of the interesting phenomena that we came across while annotating Runyankore-Rukiga:

(1)
Naagambira aha Yunivasite.
“He speaks at the university”
Naagambira
naagambira
1SGPRESspeakAPPLIND
V
aha
aha
IVSPTL
PREP
Yunivasite
yunivasite
university
N


In (1) the verb kugamb meaning speak carries the applicative suffix -ir. Interestingly it seems to be the applicative marker that forces a spatial interpretation of aha, since (2) below is ambiguous between a 'spatial interpretation' and a 'topic interpretation' of the prepositional phrase headed by aha:

(3)
Naagamba aha Yunivasite.
“He speaks at/about the univiersty”
Naagamba
naagamba
3SGPRESspeakIND
V
aha
aha
  
PREP
Yunivasite
yunivasite
university
N


Is there a preposition 'of' in Runyankore-Rukiga?

The following sentences taken from the TC database have in common that they contain a phrase that is translated using the English preposition of. The corresponding element in RR is sometimes a free, sometimes a bound morpheme.

Its forms are: we,gwe, bw, rwa, ka, za, bwa, ya. 

Following Taylor (1985) -a is the possessive marker while the variation derives from agreement. Should we call this formative a preposition?

Naahika aha mwojo w'Omunyankore.
“I found one Munyankore boy”
Naahika
naahika
1SGPASTreachIND
V
aha
aha
 
PREP
mwojo
mwoja
oneboy
 
w'Omunyankore
weomunyankore
of1munyankore
Np
Bamwe aha barikukurata omupiira gwa Uganda nibagamba aha migisha ekiriyo
“Some of those who follow Uganda matches say that Uganda still has a chance.”
Bamwe
bamwe
2some
QUANT
aha
aha
 of
PREP
barikukurata
barikukurata
REL2COPINFfollowIND
V
omupiira
omupiira
IV3football-matches
N
gwa
gua
3of
PREP
Uganda
uganda
uganda
Np
nibagamba
nibagamba
PROG3PLtalkIND
V
aha
aha
IVabout
PREP
migisha
migisha
4chance
N
ekiriyo
ekiriyo
4stillPRSTVbeLOC
V
Reeba hariho n’obugyere bwayo aha meeza.
“See her footprints on the table.”
Reeba
reeba
seeIND
V
hariho
hariho
16beLOC
AUX
n’
na
 
CONJC
obugyere
obugyere
IV14foot
N
bwayo
buayo
of93SG
PN
aha
aha
onSPTL
PREP
meeza
meeza
table
N
Naareeba enkoko aha rwigi rw’eifumbiro.
“I have seen the hen near/at/on the kitchen door.”
Naareeba
naareeba
1SGPRESseeIND
V
enkoko
enkoko
IV9hen
N
aha
aha
IVSPTL
PREP
rwigi
ruigi
11door
N
rw’eifumbiro
rwaeifumbiro
ofIV5kitchen
N


Ditransitive constructions in Runyankore-Rukiga The following are ditransitive constructions in Runyankore-Rukiga.

Birungi yaaha Karungi ebitabo
“Birungi has given Karungi books”
Birungi
birungi
 
Np
yaaha
yaaha
1SBJPRESgiveIND
V
Karungi
karungi
 
Np
ebitabo
ebitabo
IV8book
N
Birungi ebitabo yaabiha Karungi
“Birungi has given the books to Karungi”
Birungi
birungi
 
Np
ebitabo
ebitabo
IV8book
N
yaabiha
yaabiha
1SBJPRES8giveIND
V
Karungi
karungi
 
Np
Kato akagura orugoye
“Kato bought a cloth”
Kato
kato
 
Np
akagura
akagura
1SBJIVbuyIND
V
orugoye
orugoye
IV11cloth
N
Kato akagurira nyina orugoye
“Kato bought a cloth for his mother”
Kato
kato
 
Np
akagurira
akagurira
1SBJIVbuyAPPLIND
V
nyina
nyina
 
N
orugoye
orugoye
IV11cloth
N


Diverging noun class systems for Runyankore-Rukiga

Morris.H.F. and B.F.R. Kirwan(1972) and Taylor, C. (1985) see Bantu Bibliography feature two different noun class systems.

Table: Noun class systems Runyankore-Rukiga
noun class Morris & Kirwan Taylor
1 mu-(omuntu) Omu (omukazi)
2 ba- (abantu) aba (abakazi)
3 ki-(ekintu) omu (omuti)
4 bi-(ebintu) emi (emiti)
5 n- (ente) eri (eriino)
6 n- (ente) ama (amaino)
7 ku- (okutu) eki (ekitabo)
8 ma-(amatu) ebi (ebitabo)
9 bu- (obuta) en (eka)
10 ma- (amata) ama (amaka)
11 ri- (eriino) oru (orura)
12 ma- (amaino) ama (amara)
13 ru- (orushozi) oru (orushozi) orukuuto
14 n- (enshozi) en (enshozi)/enkuuto
15 ka- (akantu) oru (orushaza)
16 bu- (obuntu) obu(obushaza)
17 tu- (oturo) aka (akagiiko)
18 ha- (ahantu) obu (obugiiko)
19 mu- aka (akaato)
20 ku- otu (otwato)
21 gu- (ogushaija) otu (oturo)
22 ga- (agashaija) obu (obuta)
23 ama (amata)