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Annotating Runyankore-Rukiga

Revision as of 08:20, 15 March 2010 by Allen Asiimwe (Talk | contribs)

Runyankore-Rukiga refers to two of the four closely related languages of Uganda which form part of a new standardized language of Uganda together with Runyoro and Rutooro. Sometimes Runyakitara is used to refer to the standardized form of these four languages; see for example the following still incomplete wikipedia article .

Here we discuss questions related to the annotation of Runyankore-Rukiga texts and sentence collections in TypeCraft. The material is annotated by Allen Asiimwe who is a lecturer at Makerere University. She is a speaker of Rukiga. In addition Justus Turamyomwe and Misah Natumanya both graduate students at the Linguistic Department at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU annotate.

Annotating in TypeCraft

The following example shows a standard TypeCraft annotation. TypeCraft uses three tiers for linguistic annotation: a translational tier, a gloss tier and a part-of-speech tier. When interlinear glosses (IG) are exported from TypeCraft the translational and the gloss tier are collapsed for presentational reasons. You need to have a login to TypeCraft in order to annotate. Simply write and e-mail using the mail address given on the [Main Page]

(1)


The free morphemes aha and omu

The free forms aha and omu are derived from the locative classes ha- and mu- via the affixation of an initial vowel. Both forms may occur as part of a locative expression, as determiners or as pronouns. In the example below aha is categorized as a preposition. On of the projects the Runyankore-Rukiga group is working on is to develop a better understanding of the role that both elements play in the grammar of Runyankore-Rukiga.

(2)
Naagambira aha Yunivasite.
“He speaks at the university”
Naagambira
naagambira
1SGPRESspeakAPPLIND
V
aha
aha
IVSPTL
PREP
Yunivasite
yunivasite
university
N


Here one of the interesting facts we have come across:

In the example above aha is followed by the noun yunvasite. The verb gamb meaning speak carries the applicative suffix -ir. It is the applicative that forces a spatial interpretation of aha. The following sentence in contrast is ambiguous between a 'spatial interpretation' and a 'topic interpretation' of aha:

(3)
Naagamba aha Yunivasite.
“He speaks at/about the univiersty”
Naagamba
naagamba
3SGPRESspeakIND
V
aha
aha
  
PREP
Yunivasite
yunivasite
university
N


Is there a preposition 'of' in Runyankore-Rukiga?

The following 8 sentences have in common that each of them contains a phrase that is translated using the English preposition of. The corresponding element in RR is sometimes a free, sometimes a bound morpheme combining two nouns.

Its forms are: we,gwe, bw, rwa, ka, za, bwa, ya.

If these are instances of one and the same formative what exactly explains the variation we see?

Naahika aha mwojo w'Omunyankore.
“I found one Munyankore boy”
Naahika
naahika
1SGPASTreachIND
V
aha
aha
 
PREP
mwojo
mwoja
oneboy
 
w'Omunyankore
weomunyankore
of1munyankore
Np
Bamwe aha barikukurata omupiira gwa Uganda nibagamba aha migisha ekiriyo
“Some of those who follow Uganda matches say that Uganda still has a chance.”
Bamwe
bamwe
2some
QUANT
aha
aha
 of
PREP
barikukurata
barikukurata
REL2COPINFfollowIND
V
omupiira
omupiira
IV3football-matches
N
gwa
gua
3of
PREP
Uganda
uganda
uganda
Np
nibagamba
nibagamba
PROG3PLtalkIND
V
aha
aha
IVabout
PREP
migisha
migisha
4chance
N
ekiriyo
ekiriyo
4stillPRSTVbeLOC
V
Reeba hariho n’obugyere bwayo aha meeza.
“See her footprints on the table.”
Reeba
reeba
seeIND
V
hariho
hariho
16beLOC
AUX
n’
na
 
CONJC
obugyere
obugyere
IV14foot
N
bwayo
buayo
of93SG
PN
aha
aha
onSPTL
PREP
meeza
meeza
table
N
Naareeba enkoko aha rwigi rw’eifumbiro.
“I have seen the hen near/at/on the kitchen door.”
Naareeba
naareeba
1SGPRESseeIND
V
enkoko
enkoko
IV9hen
N
aha
aha
IVSPTL
PREP
rwigi
ruigi
11door
N
rw’eifumbiro
rwaeifumbiro
ofIV5kitchen
N
Twena twetabe omu karuuru k’okubinga obworo n’obutamanya.
“Let us all participate in the campain against poverty and ignorance”
Twena
tuena
1PLall
QUANT
twetabe
tuetabe
3PLparticipateIMP
V
omu
omu
IVin
PREP
karuuru
karuuru
12campaign
N
k’
kaa
12of
PREP
okubinga
okubinga
IVINFchaseIND
V
obworo
obuoro
IV14poverty
N
n’
na
and
CONJC
obutamanya
obutamanya
IV14ignorance
N
Abeegi beetabire omu mpaka z’omupiira.
“Students participated in football competitions”
Abeegi
abaegi
IV2student
N
beetabire
baetabire
2participatePFV
V
omu
o0mu
  
PREP
mpaka
npaka
10competition
N
z'
zaa
 of
PREP
omupiira
omupiira
IV3football
N
Twarugaho twahika Nakawa, omu burugwaizooba bwa Kampala.
“We left that place and reached Nakawa, in the west of Kampala.”
Twarugaho
tuarugaho
1PLPRESleaveFVLOC
V
twahika
tuahika
1PLPRESreachIND
V
Nakawa
nakawa
Nakawa
Np
omu
omu
IVinSPTL
PREP
burugwaizooba
burugwaizooba
west14sun
N
bwa
bua
14of
PREP
Kampala
kampala
Kampala
Np
karikwigura omu seefu ya manegya
“…which opens the manager’s safe”
karikwigura
karikuigura
12COPINFopenFV
V
omu
omu
IVSPTL
PREP
seefu
seefu
safe9
N
ya
ya
9of
PREP
manegya
manegya
manager1
N


Justus' try-out