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The verb kɔ
A mini grammar squib
The verbs bɛ and kɔ occur as independent verbs, meaning come and go respectively. Sometimes however they are used to convey functional information of aspectual nature, or information tied to deixis. There is a third use of kɔ which occurs when it preceeds a noun denoting a location. In this case Kɔ seems to express directionality. In the following we will only discuss kɔ, leaving the discussion of bɛ for another occasion.
This squib was based on the TC Akan corpus from December 2012. At that point the database hosted 41 Akan sentences containing kɔ. By now the public TypeCraft Akan corpus, which is an improved version of the older open-end corpus, contains 174 instances of kɔ.
Kɔ either is an independent verb, or a verbal prefix.
Kɔ as an independent verb
Let us first look at sentence (1) and (2) which exemplify the use of kɔ as a main verb meaning go.
The first sentence is a negated imperative while the second shows kɔ as the main verb.
In (2) the verb is glossed as a past tense verb following standard annotation practice. It has been argued that Akan has an Aspect based verbal inflection system (see for example 
me nua no kɔɔ efie ho enora
“my sibling went to the house yesterday”
In (3) kɔ is the V3 in a 'Clause Chaining' verb serialisation
Ato fi fie fa ne sɛnkuo kɔ kurom
“Ato leaves the house, takes his sɛnkuo and goes to town”
Sentence (4) illustrates an 'Integrated' serialisation.
hwansena no akɔ si papa no atifi.
“the fly has gone to sit on top of the man's head”
Kɔ combines with a manner of movement verb "si" descend. There seems to be a certain similarity to a satellite marking pattern, using Talmy's terminology .
However, neither of the verbs expressing the descending motion is the head per se, but both verbs are serialised.
So far we have seen kɔ as an independent verb, but when part of a serialisation kɔ may also appear as a verbal prefix, expressing the onset of an event. When occuring in this capacity, it is annotated as INGR, standing for ingressive. Its function then is that of an aspectual verb or an aspectual marker.
(5) to (8) shows kɔ as an aspectual verb/prefix
Mmrahyεbεdwani he de nkondwa akɔma asɔre he.
“The member for parliment has donated chairs to the church.”
Bɛɛkɔhwe aburaa no.
“They are going to drain the stream.”
“Go and greet them.”
Boakye rekɔgye aba abεdi.
“Boakye is going to collect it, come back and eat it.”
- ↑ Dorothee Beermann. 2012. The Akan verb kɔ. TypeCraft Grammar squib. http://www.typecraft.org. Accessed [DATE].
- ↑ OSAM, E. Kweku. 2003. An Introduction to the Verbal and Multi-verbal System of Akan. In Dorothee Beermann and Lars Hellan (eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on Multi-verb Constructions. Trondheim Summer School 2003. Available from: http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/tross/TROSS03-toc.html