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Persian object cliticalizations

Persian object clitics and the syntax-morphology interface  
Type Article
Author(s) Pollet Samvalian, Jesse Tseng
Editor(s) Stefan Muller
Publication title

Proceedings of the HPSG10 Conference

Universit´e Paris Diderot, Paris 7, France
Publisher CSLI
Publication date 2010
Pages 21
Country Univ Paris, Univ Toulouse
Annotator Atena
Corpus Link Persian object cliticalizations
Language English
Media type web article Persian object clitics and the syntax-morphology interface

By Atena

General Information

This article belongs to the TC Category Interlinear Glossed Text from Linguistic Research.

In this category we collect TCwiki pages that feature Interlinear Glossed Text (IGT) from linguistic publications.

IGT are normally demarcated through indenting, numbering and a space above and under the example. One line of text is followed by one line of glosses and a line with free translation completes the pattern. IGTs from linguistic publications are of particular interest, since they represent a unique alignment of language data and linguistic theory. Example sentences from seminal articles are not rarely quoted in linguistic publications for decades which is another good reason why they need our attention.

In an effort to make IGT more accessible to linguistic research, we try to extract original IGT from linguistic publications and in same cases we provide additional linguistic glosses through a subsequent layer of annotation using the TypeCraft Glosser. In this way we hope to contribute to the re-usability of this data.

On each of the our pages that feature IGT from secondary sources, we also provide a short annotated bibliography, sometimes combined with a list of key-terms which can help to gain a perspective on the research questions raised in the original article. The 'Infobox' may contain further information about the linguistic framework used in the original article, as well as additional classifications of the phenomena treated, whenever that is possible.

Key Terms:

Enclitic pronoun
Pronominal clitic
Clitic doubling
Object clitic 
Ezafe vowel


Persian language displays a set of enclitic pronoun besides using of independent pronoun. Pronominal clitics behave more like suffixes than independent syntactic elements. Focus of this paper is on use of pronominal clitic to realize the object of verb. In formal language, cliltic object and independent synthetic objects are in complementary distribution. Clitic doubling is frequent in colloquial register like example (4, 5). Object clitic can also attach to a word other than verb, as long as they appear immediately before the verb and at the edge of another complement of the verb. It is showed in (7) that the host is single word preverbal element of complex predicate, or like (10) with PP complement host. Same argument cannot be multiply realized by clitic both before and after the verb so (8) is incorrect. However it is possible to find two clitics in the same sentence as they realize different arguments like (11), Clitic(-at)attached to preverb element realizes as indirect object, and clitic on the verb(-aš)can additionally realized as direct object. Ezafe is an enclitic vowel/-ye/or/-e/attaching to successive projection of head noun, indicating the presence of the following synthetic dependent. Therefore Ezafe appears on all modifiers between the head noun and its unique NP-final complement like (9, 10).

Original Interlinear Glossed Text

(1)(man) Maryam-râ did-am

I Maryam-DDO saw-1sg

‘I saw Maryam’
(2)u-râ did-am

I 3sg-DDO saw-1sg

‘I saw him/her’

I saw-1sg-3sg

‘I saw her/him/it’
(4)Maryam-râ did-am-aš

Maryam-DDO saw-1sg-3sg

‘I saw Maryam’
(5)u-râ did-am-aš

3sg-DDO saw-1sg-3sg

‘I saw him/her’
(6)bâz kard-am-aš

open did-1sg-3sg

‘I opened it’
(7)bâz-aš kard-am

open-3sg did-1sg

‘I opened it’
(8)*bâz-aš kard-am-aš

open-3sg did-1sg-3sg

‘I opened it’
(9)ru-ye miz gozâšt-am-aš

on-EZ table put-1sg-3sg

‘I put it on the table’
(10)ru-ye miz-aš gozâšt-am

on-EZ table-3sg put-1sg

‘I put it on the table’
(11)nešhan-at dadam-aš

show-2sg gave-1sg-3sg

‘I showed it to you’
Related articles= The position of clitics in Persian intonational structure