Object Relations in Haya
|Object Relations in Haya|
|Author(s)||Larry M. Hyman and Alessandro Duranti|
|Editor(s)||P.Hopper & S. Thompson|
|Publication title||Studies in Transitivity|
|Journal||Syntax and Semantics|
|Publisher||New York:Academic Press|
|Corpus Link||Object Relation in Haya|
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- word order
In this article,the authors try to establish the grammatical relations of subject,(indirect)object and oblique in example (1),(2) and (3). (1) illustrates that an oblique object in Haya is preceded by a preposition though not always. However,there are instances in which a verb takes two nominal complements without including a preposition. see example (2)and (3).
(4)and(5) explains the same process of excluding prepositions between the indirect object and the oblique but the difference is that have the applicative marker which marks the eminence of the recipient or beneficiary.
(6)shows thatthe possesor is not afffected by the action of the verb.And in (7) two sucessive nouns illustrate that the possesor is affected by the action of the verb. .The nouns in (2) can be placed in either order (8) .Either banana or child can be passivised see (9) (10) and (11) .The two nouns can appear as pronouns in the OM clitic position.
.in (12) (13) and (14) cliticalization is also possible for sentences with applicatives . In (15) arm can not appear after the verb with child and in 16 child can subectivise but arm can not. .Child can cliticise but arm can not. (see;17) .the passive agent in (18) can not cliticalize in (19) .woman and arm can not cliticalize in 22 that is the passive agent and the possesed body part
|(1) kat' á-ka-téél' ómwáána n'énkoni
kato he-p3-beat child with stick
'kato beat the child with a stick'.(P3=before yesterday past)
|(2) A-ka-h' ómwáán' 'ébitooke.
he-P3-give child bananas.
'He gave the child bananas.
he-P3-smear child oil.
'He smeared the child with oil'or 'He smeared oil on the child'.
|(4) [http://typecraft.org/TCEditor/1895/ A-ka-túm-il ómwáán'ebitooke.
He-p3-send-app child bananas.
He sent the child bananas.
|(5) A-ka-cumb-il ómwáán'ebitooke.
he-p3-cook-app child bananas.
'He cooked the child bananas'
|AFFECTED AND UNAFFECTED POSSESOR|
|(6) ?A-ka-hénd omukono gw' ómwááná.
he-p3-break arm of child.
'He broke the child's arm'.
|(7) A-ka-hénd ómwáán'omukono.
He-P3-break child arm.
'He broke the child's arm'.
|PASSIVE OR SUBJECTIVISATION|
|(8)A-ka-h ébitook ómwááná.
he-p3-give bananas child.
'He gave bananas to the child'.
|9(a) ómwáán a-ka-háá-bw' ébitooke.
child he-p3-give-pass bananas
'The child was given bananas'.
|9(b) Ebitooke bi-ka-haa-bw ómwáaná.
bananas they-p3-give-pass child
'The bananas were given to the child'.
|OBJECT MARKING OR CLITICALIZATION|
'He gave him bananas'
'He gave them to the child'.
'He gave them to him'.
|SUBJECTIVISATION WITH APPLICATIVE|
he-P3cook-app bananas child.
'He cooked the bananas for the child.
child he-P3-cook-app-pass bananas.
'The child was cooked bananas'
|13(b) Ebitooke bi-ka-cumb-il-w' ómwáana.
bananas they-P3-cook-app-pass child.
'The bananas were cooked for the child'.
|OM WITH APPLICATIVES|
'he cooked bananas for him'.
'He cooked them for the child.'
|IMPACT OF THE POSSESOR ON WORD ORDER|
I-P3-break arm child.
child he-P3-break pass arm.
'The child's arm was broken'.
(lit.,the child was broken the arm)
|(b) *Omukóno gú-ka-hénd-w'ómwáana.
arm it-P3-break-pass child.
I-P3-him break arm.
'I broke his arm'
(Lit.,'I broke him the arm')
Lit.,'I broke it the child.' Lit.,the arm was broken the child.
|(18) Ebitooke bi-ka-cumb-w ómukâzi.
bananas they-P3-cook-pass woman.
'The bananas were cooked by the woman'.
|(19) *Ebitooke bi-ka-mú-cumb-w-a.
'The bananas were cooked by her'.
child he-P3-cook-app-pass woman bananas.
Lit.,'The child was cooked bananas by the woman'.
|(21) Omwáán' a-ka-hénd-w' ómukázy ómukôno.
child he-P3-break-pass woman arm.
Lit.,'The child was broken the arm by the woman'.
|(22)a*Omwáán' a-ka-mu-hénd-w' ómukôno.
child he-P3-her-break-pass arm.
Lit.,'the child was broken the arm by her'.
|(b) *Omwáán' a-ka-gu-hénd-w' ómukázi.
child he-P3-it-break-pass woman.
Lit.,'the child was broken it by the woman'.