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Typological Features Template for Runyankore Rukiga

Revision as of 12:53, 30 March 2010 by Allen Asiimwe (Talk | contribs)

by Allen Asiimwe and Justus Turamyomwe

Feature Description
Phonological Features In the following fields you describe the phonological inventory o [your language]
Vowel inventory In this field you describe the vowel inventory of [your language]
Vowel harmony Vowel harmony in Akan operates according to a tongue root system. Usually, nominal and verbal prefixes agree in ATR value with the vowels in the verb or noun stem.
Consonant inventory In this field you describe the consonants of [your language]
Tone In this field you indicate if [your language] is a tone language and which tones are used; does [your language] have lexical tone?
Syllable Structure In this field you indicate the basic syllable structures of [your language].
Morpho-syntactic Features In the following fields you describe some of the basic morpho-syntactic parameters of [your language]
morphological classification (1) [Runyankore-Rukiga is an agglutinating language, characterized by a complex verbal system.
morphological classification (2) Linguists have distinguished between head- and dependent-marking languages. Semitic languages are head marking languages; it is the head of the noun phrases that needs to have a special form when followed by a dependent noun; in the Germanic languages it is the head of the verb phrase that expresses person-number features of its subject. Grammatical dependencies on the other hand are in some of the Germanic languages expressed on the dependent noun phrases in form of case. [Your language] might be both, head- and dependent-marking, depending on the category of speech and or the type of feature expressed. This is what you can describe in this field.
Nominal Phrases


A noun phrase is headed by a noun. If the noun is modified the modifier follows the noun. However, in some circumstances, the determiner may precede the noun it modifies. For example in the case of quantifiers when modifying a noun where the quantifier precedes the Noun e.g. buri mukazi(see type craft for proper annotation
syntactic structure

Noun+Demo Adjective+pure adjective/appositive+quatifier+verbal adjective+Relativiser+Emphatic

Noun + Adjective + Relativiser + Emphatic
nominal modification The nominal modifiers are demonstratives, adjectives, possessives, relative clauses, appositives. nominal specification

deixis is marked by proximal, medial and distal.Deixis or reference is represented by affixes which vary depending on the noun class. The language also has demonstratives, numerals, quantifiers and determiners. The definite determiners are expressed by the initial vowel while the indefinite determiners are not marked.

possession It is expressed by affixes which vary according to the noun class prefix. therefore the possessives are comprised of the class prefix and the possessive marker.
pronominal system The language has free pronoun forms e.g emphatics, relative pronouns and self standing pronouns such as nyowe, itwe, iwe, imwe, we, bo and many more, which vary according to the noun class. The language also has bound pronouns which are expressed as object infixes as well as subject prefixes. All these are marked for number
Verbal Phrases In the following fields serve for the description of some of the basic morpho-syntactic properties of verbal constituents
word order Runyankore-Rukiga, like all other Bantu languages, the basic word order is SVO, however, it exhibits flexibility. Grammatical subjects can be extraposed, demoted or dropped, while the object can be left dislocated or promoted.
TAM Tense and aspect are morphologically marked. All tenses are marked apart from the habitual tense. Tense/aspect markers can either precede or follow the verb root, and they are not necessarily distinct. For Instance -ire marks the yesterday tense and the perfective aspect e.g. n-zin-ire (I danced (yesterday)). -ire also marks the stative aspect e.g. n-dwa-ire (I am sick).
infinitival forms The infinitive marker is -ku-. e.g. o-ku-zin-a (to dance), o-ku-ry-a (to eat), o-ku-reeb-a (to see), o-kw-iruk-a (to run).
verbal constructions In this field you indicate if [your language] has ditransitive constructions, serial verb constructions or complex verb forms composed of several verbs. Does your language have so called light verbs, perhaps only used to indicate a certain tense or aspect?
Adpositions In this field you indicate if [your language[ makes use of prepositions or postpositions. Does your language have spatial nouns? Does your language use adpositions or particles to indicate grammatical relations between the verb and a nominal argument?
Complementation In this field you describe complementation strategies. Does [your language] make use of complementizers?
Special Properties of [your language] In this field you should mention properties of [your language] which did not fit into any of the other categories mentioned in this template
Short Bibliography

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