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Difference between revisions of "Luganda applicatives"

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(3)VERB:"nywa", '''Meaning''': 'drink',  '''Thematic Role''': Location, '''AA-Category''': AA not lexicalized independently, '''Argument index''': Locative endclitic on the verb, ''Topicalisation''': -
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(3)VERB:"nywa",'''Meaning''': 'drink',  '''Themantic Role''': Location, '''AA-Category''': AA not lexicalized independently, '''Argument index''': Locative endclitic on the verb, ''Topicalisation''': -
  
 
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(4) VERB: "kola" '''Meaning''': 'do', '''AA''':Bebe Cool  '''Thematic Role''':Beneficiary,  '''AA-Category''': Np , '''Argument index''': -, ''Topicalisation''': -
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(4) VERB: "kola" '''Meaning''': 'do', '''AA'''':Bebe Cool  '''Thematic Role''': Beneficiary,  '''AA-Category''': Np , '''Argument index''': -, '''Topicalisation''': -
  
 
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Revision as of 16:34, 30 April 2016

The study of Bantu applicatives has a long tradition. Here are some references ordered by language

  • Sesotho – Morolong & Hyman, 1977; Machobane, 1989; 'Demuth 2003;
  • Haya – Duranti & Byarushengo, 1977; Hyman & Duranti, 1982;
  • Chichewa – Marantz, 1984; Baker, 1988; Alsina & Mchombo; 1990;
  • Kichaga – Bresnan & Moshi, 1990; Chishona – Harford, 1993
  • Bemba Marten 2011

Of special interest have been the applicatives derived from transitive verbs, so called derived ditransitives. Bantu languages differ in whether they allow symmetric or asymmetric applicatives. Luganda belongs to the former class, and that means that both objects behave like core objects: they can become the subject of a passive construction, and they can be expresses as pre-verbal pronominal affixes on the applicatived verb.

In the discussion of applicatives a set of properties has been of particular interested, and in the following we will describe five of these properties using IGT examples from the TypeCraft's public Luganda corpus.

Our Luganda corpus contains at the point of writing (April 2016) 94 sentence where at least one verb is glossed as having an applicative extension.

These are the parameters we have considered:

  • The thematic role of the applicativized argument (AA)
  • The syntactic category of the AA (e.g. PN, N, PP)
  • Presence of argument indices
  • Linearisation Is the objects in ditransitive applicatives
  • Applied object topicalization
  • Applied object relativized


(1) VERB: tunuula Meaning: 'look', see' , Thematic Role: Stimuli, Argument index: "ki" is class 7, which gives a pejorative meaning to the applicativized object, Topicalization: -


(2) VERB: leeta Meaning: 'bring, Thematic Role: Beneficiary, AA-Category: AA not independently lexicalised , Argument index: + , Topicalization: -


(3)VERB:"nywa",'Meaning: 'drink', Themantic Role: Location, AA-Category: AA not lexicalized independently, Argument index: Locative endclitic on the verb, Topicalisation: -


(4) VERB: "kola" Meaning: 'do', AA':Bebe Cool Thematic Role: Beneficiary, AA-Category: Np , Argument index: -, Topicalisation: -


(5)VERB: tunuula Meaning: 'look', 'see' AA: akazimbe kaganyegenya , Thematic Role: Stimuli, AA_Category: CN Argument index: -, Topicalisation: -


(6)VERB: soma, 'talk,read', Thematic Role': Malficiary, AA-Category: AA not lexicalized independently, Argument index: +, Topicalisation: -


(7)VERB:suula throw, Thematic Role: Theme, AA-Category: AA not lexicalised independently,Argument index: DIM.12, Topicalisation: -



(8)VERB: kaaba, cry, AA: waggulu, Thematic Role: Locative, Category: CN/ADV place, Argument index: -, Topicalisation: -


(9)VERB: buuka jump , AA: ebintu, Themantic Role: Locative, Category: CN, Argument Index: Locative; endclitic on the verb Topicalisation: +, Relativisation: +


(10)VERB: kaaba cry AA: nju, Themantic Role: Locative, Category: PP


(11)VERB:"jjuza" Meaning': 'fill', Themantic Role: Beneficiary, AA-Category: Argument is not lexicalised, Argument index: -, Topicalisation: - Applicativized verb is an infinitive, main verb is an imperative. Applicative is an infix


(12)VERB:"tubuula" Meaning: 'look', Themantic Role : Stimuli, AA-Category: Argument is not lexicalised, Argument index: 3SG, Topicalisation: -



(13)VERB:"tubuul" Meaning': 'look', AA: 'omusajja',Themantic Role : Stimuli, AA-Category: NP Argument index: -, Topicalisation: -


(14)VERB: 'fi' Meaning: 'die', AA: 'mu leeba' , AA-Category: NP, Topicalisation: -


(15) VERB:"buuk" Meaning: 'jump', AA: 'kantu', Themantic Role : Location, AA-Category: NP Locative/Relative Marker: 'ko', Topicalisation: - Relativisation:+


(16)VERB: suul Meaning': 'throw', Themantic Role: Theme, Argument Index: DIM.12., Topicalisation: -


(17)VERB:"buuk" Meaning: 'jump', AA: 'ebintu', Themantic Role : Location, AA-Category: NP Locative/Relative Marker: 'ko', Topicalisation: - Relativisation:+


(18) COPULA


(19) VERB 'kol' Meaning: 'do', Themantic Role: Beneficiary, AA-category: AA not independently lexicalised, Topicalization: -


(20) VERB: 'kasuk' Meaning: 'throw', Thematic Role:Goal, AA-category: AA not independently lexicalised, Relativisation:+


(21)VERB: 'tandik' Meaning: 'begin', Thematic Role: Event, AA-category: infinite verb,


(22) VERB: 'gejj', Meaning: 'throw', Thematic Role: Reason, AA-category: N, Topicalization: -


(23) VERB


(24)


(25)


(26)VERB: fuuk, Meaning: turn


(27) VERB: som, Meaning: talk, Themantic Role: Subject matter, AA-category: AA is not independently realized,


(28)VERB: ŋond, MEANING: 'easier', 'softer', Themantic Role: Beneficiary, AA-category: AA is not independently realized,


(29)VERB: w Meaning: 'give'


(30)VERB: w Meaning: 'give'