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Difference between revisions of "Luganda applicatives"

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The study of Bantu applicatives has long tradition:
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The study of Bantu applicatives has a long tradition:
 
*'''Sesotho''' – Morolong & Hyman, 1977; Machobane, 1989; 'Demuth 2003;  
 
*'''Sesotho''' – Morolong & Hyman, 1977; Machobane, 1989; 'Demuth 2003;  
 
*'''Haya''' – Duranti & Byarushengo, 1977; Hyman & Duranti, 1982;  
 
*'''Haya''' – Duranti & Byarushengo, 1977; Hyman & Duranti, 1982;  
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*'''Bemba''' Marten 2011
 
*'''Bemba''' Marten 2011
  
Of special interest have been the applicatives derived from transitive verbs, since Bantu languages differ in whether they allow symmetric applicatives  where both objects behave like core objects, that is, they can for example become the subject of a passive construction. Luganda is a symmetric language which also means that both object of a ditransitive applicative can be pronominalized to become a preverbal pronominal affix to the applicatived verb. In the discussion of applicatives a set of properties  has  been of particular interested. In the following we will describe five of these properties  using IGT excamples from the TypeCraft's public Luganda corpus.
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Of special interest have been the applicatives derived from transitive verbs, so called derived ditransitives.
 +
Bantu languages differ in whether they allow symmetric or asymmetric applicatives. Luganda belongs to the former class, and that means that both objects behave like core objects: they can become the subject of a passive construction, and they can be expresses as pre-verbal pronominal affixes on the applicatived verb.  
  
Our Luganda corpus contains at the point of writing (April 2016) 94 sentence where at least one verb is glosses as having an applicative extension.
+
In the discussion of applicatives a set of properties  has  been of particular interested, and in the following we will describe five of these properties  using IGT examples from the TypeCraft's public Luganda corpus.
  
For a random selection of 30 of these 94 sentence we have looked at the following parameters
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Our Luganda corpus contains at the point of writing (April 2016) 94 sentence where at least one verb is glossed as having an applicative extension.
 +
 
 +
These are the parameters we have considered:
  
 
* '''The thematic role of the applicativized argument (AA)'''
 
* '''The thematic role of the applicativized argument (AA)'''

Revision as of 16:35, 28 April 2016

The study of Bantu applicatives has a long tradition:

  • Sesotho – Morolong & Hyman, 1977; Machobane, 1989; 'Demuth 2003;
  • Haya – Duranti & Byarushengo, 1977; Hyman & Duranti, 1982;
  • Chichewa – Marantz, 1984; Baker, 1988; Alsina & Mchombo; 1990;
  • Kichaga – Bresnan & Moshi, 1990; Chishona – Harford, 1993
  • Bemba Marten 2011

Of special interest have been the applicatives derived from transitive verbs, so called derived ditransitives.

Bantu languages differ in whether they allow symmetric or asymmetric applicatives. Luganda belongs to the former class, and that means that  both objects behave like core objects: they can become the subject of a passive construction, and they can be expresses as pre-verbal pronominal affixes on the applicatived verb. 

In the discussion of applicatives a set of properties has been of particular interested, and in the following we will describe five of these properties using IGT examples from the TypeCraft's public Luganda corpus.

Our Luganda corpus contains at the point of writing (April 2016) 94 sentence where at least one verb is glossed as having an applicative extension.

These are the parameters we have considered:

  • The thematic role of the applicativized argument (AA)
  • The syntactic category of the AA (e.g. PN, N, PP)
  • Presence of argument indices
  • Linearisation Is the objects in ditransitive applicatives
  • Object topicalization


(1) VERB: tunuul Meaning: 'look', see' AA: ye, Thematic Role: Stimuli, AA-Category: PN, 3SG Argument index: "ki" seems to be an object marker, Topicalization: -


(2) VERB: leetMeaning': 'bring', AA: 3SG, Thematic Role: Beneficiary, AA-Category: AA not lexicalised , Argument index: + , Topicalization: -


(3)VERB:"nyw", Meaning''consume', AA -, Thematic Role: Location, AA-Category: AA not lexicalised independently, Argument index: Locative endclitic on the verb, Topicalisation: -


(4) VERB: "kol" Meaning': 'do', AA:Bebe Cool Thematic Role:Beneficiary, AA-Category: Np , Argument index: -, Topicalisation: -


(5)VERB: tunuul Meaning: 'look, see' AA: akazimbe kaganyegenya 'unfavourable hounse", Thematic Role: Stimuli, AA_Category: CN Argument index: -, Topicalisation: -


(6)VERB: som, 'talk,read', AA': 1SG, Thematic Role: Malficiary, Category:AA not lexicalised independently, Argument index: +, Topicalisation: -


(7)VERB:suul 'throw', AA: ________, Thematic Role: ________, Category_______, Argument index_________, Topicalisation: -


(8)VERB: kaab, 'cry' AA': waggulu, Thematic Role: Locative, Category: CN place, Argument index: -, Topicalisation: -


(9)VERB: buuk 'jump' AA: ebintu, Themantic Role: Locative, Category: ____, Argument Index: Locative endclitic on the verb Topicalisation: +


(10)VERB: kaab 'cry' AA: nju, Themantic Role: Locative, Category: PP, c


(11)VERB:"jjuz" Meaning': 'fill', AA: 3SG, Themantic Role : Beneficiary, AA-Category: Argument is not lexicalised, Argument index: -, Topicalisation: - Applicativized verb is an infinitive.


(12)VERB:"tubuul" Meaning': 'look', Themantic Role : Stimuli, AA-Category: Argument is not lexicalised, Argument index: 3SG, Topicalisation: -


(13)VERB:"tubuul" Meaning': 'look', AA: 'omusajja',Themantic Role : Stimuli, AA-Category: NP Argument index: -, Topicalisation: -


(14)VERB: 'fi' Meaning: 'die', AA: 'mu leeba' __________ AA-Category: NP cTopicalisation: -


(15) VERB:"buuk" Meaning: 'jump', AA: 'kantu', Themantic Role : Location, AA-Category: NP Locative/Relative Marker: 'ko',

Topicalisation': - Relativisation:+


(16)VERB: suul Meaning': 'throw', Themantic Role: Theme, Argument Index: DIM.12., Topicalisation: -


(17)VERB:"buuk" Meaning: 'jump', AA: 'ebintu', Themantic Role : Location, AA-Category: NP Locative/Relative Marker: 'ko',

Topicalisation': - Relativisation:+


(18) COPULA


(19) VERB 'kol' Meaning: 'do', Themantic Role: Beneficiary, AA-category: AA not lexicalised independently, Topicalization: -


(20) VERB: 'kasuk' Meaning: 'throw', Thematic Role:Goal, AA-category: AA not lexicalised independently, Relativisation:+


(21)


(22 VERB: 'gejj', Meaning: 'throw', Thematic Role: Reason, AA-category: N, Topicalization: -


(23)


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