Typecraft v2.5
Jump to: navigation, search

Difference between revisions of "Luganda applicatives"

Line 109: Line 109:
(21)VERB: 'tandik' '''Meaning''': 'begin',  '''Thematic Role''': Event, '''AA-category: infinite verb/deverbal noun?,  
(21)VERB: 'tandika' '''Meaning''': 'begin',  '''Thematic Role''': Event, '''AA-category''': deverbal noun,  

Revision as of 10:39, 1 May 2016

The study of Bantu applicatives has a long tradition. Here are some references ordered by language

  • Sesotho – Morolong & Hyman, 1977; Machobane, 1989; 'Demuth 2003;
  • Haya – Duranti & Byarushengo, 1977; Hyman & Duranti, 1982;
  • Chichewa – Marantz, 1984; Baker, 1988; Alsina & Mchombo; 1990;
  • Kichaga – Bresnan & Moshi, 1990; Chishona – Harford, 1993
  • Bemba Marten 2011

Of special interest have been the applicatives derived from transitive verbs, so called derived ditransitives. Bantu languages differ in whether they allow symmetric or asymmetric applicatives. Luganda belongs to the former class, and that means that both objects behave like core objects: they can become the subject of a passive construction, and they can be expresses as pre-verbal pronominal affixes on the applicatived verb.

In the discussion of applicatives a set of properties has been of particular interested, and in the following we will describe five of these properties using IGT examples from the TypeCraft's public Luganda corpus.

Our Luganda corpus contains at the point of writing (April 2016) 94 sentence where at least one verb is glossed as having an applicative extension.

These are the parameters we have considered:

  • The thematic role of the applicativized argument (AA)
  • The syntactic category of the AA (e.g. PN, N, PP)
  • Presence of argument indices
  • Linearisation Is the objects in ditransitive applicatives
  • Applied object topicalization
  • Applied object relativized

(1) VERB: tunuula Meaning: 'look', see' , Thematic Role: Stimuli, Argument index: "ki" is class 7, which gives a pejorative meaning to the applicativized object, Topicalization: -

(2) VERB: leeta Meaning: 'bring, Thematic Role: Beneficiary, AA-Category: AA not independently lexicalised , Argument index: + , Topicalization: -

(3)VERB:"nywa",'Meaning: 'drink', Themantic Role: Location, AA-Category: AA not lexicalized independently, Argument index: Locative endclitic on the verb, Topicalisation: -

(4) VERB: "kola" Meaning: 'do', AA':Bebe Cool Thematic Role: Beneficiary, AA-Category: Np , Argument index: -, Topicalisation: -

(5)VERB: tunuula Meaning: 'look', 'see' AA: akazimbe kaganyegenya , Thematic Role: Stimuli, AA_Category: CN Argument index: -, Topicalisation: -

(6)VERB: soma, Meaning': 'read',Themantic Role: Malficiary, AA-Category: AA not lexicalized independently, Argument index: +, Topicalisation: - Note: The meaning read to me is here interpreted as talking bad about me (might be a slang expression)

(7)VERB:suula Meaning: throw, Thematic Role: Theme, AA-Category: AA not lexicalised independently,Argument index: DIM.12, Topicalisation: -

(8)VERB: kaaba, Meaning: cry, AA: waggulu, Thematic Role: Locative, Category: CN/ADV place, Argument index: -, Topicalisation: -

(9)VERB: buuka Meaning: jump , AA: ebintu, Themantic Role: Locative, Category: CN, Argument Index: Locative; endclitic on the verb Topicalisation: -, Relativisation: +

(10)VERB: kaaba Meaning: cry AA: nju, Themantic Role: Locative, Category: PP

(11)VERB:"jjuza" Meaning: 'fill', ''Themantic Role: Beneficiary, AA-Category: Argument is not lexicalised, Argument index: -, Topicalisation: - Applicativized verb is an infinitive, main verb is an imperative. Applicative is an infix

(12)VERB:"tubuula" Meaning: 'look', Themantic Role : Stimuli, AA-Category: Argument is not lexicalised, Argument index: 3SG, animate, Topicalisation: -

(13)VERB:"tubuula" Meaning': 'look', AA: 'omusajja',Themantic Role : Stimuli, AA-Category: NP Argument index: -, Topicalisation: -

(14)VERB: fi Meaning: 'die', AA: 'mu leeba' , AA-Category: PP, Topicalisation: - Comment: the expression die in labour undergoes locative applicativization.

(15) VERB:"buuka" Meaning: 'jump', AA: 'kantu', Themantic Role : Location, AA-Category: NP Locative/Relative Marker: ko, Topicalisation: - Relativisation:+

(16)VERB: suula Meaning': 'throw', Themantic Role: Theme, Argument Index: DIM.12., Topicalisation: -

(17)VERB:"buuka" Meaning: 'jump', AA: ebintu, Themantic Role : Location, AA-Category: NP Locative/Relative Marker: 'ko', Topicalisation: - Relativisation:+

(18) applicative copula construction

(19) VERB 'kola' Meaning: 'do', Themantic Role: Beneficiary, AA-category: AA not independently lexicalised, Argument index: 3PL, Topicalization: -

(20) VERB: 'kasuka' Meaning: 'throw', Thematic Role:Recipiant, AA-category: AA not independently lexicalised,Argument index: 3PL , Relativisation:+

(21)VERB: 'tandika' Meaning: 'begin', Thematic Role: Event, AA-category: deverbal noun,

(22) VERB: 'gejj', Meaning: 'throw', Thematic Role: Reason, AA-category: CN, Topicalization: -

(23) VERB: yuza Meaning: 'tear', AA: olugoye lwange, Thematic Role: Patient, AA-category:CN, Argument index: 1SG, Topicalization: - , Comment: The applicativized argument is of class 11.It is a possessive NP (1.SG).

(24) VERB: okoza Meaning: 'wash' AA:lubalaza., Thematic Role: Location, AA-category:PP, Comment: the applicative extension is an infix

(25)VERB: jagua, Meaning: 'celebrate', AA:amazaalibwa, Thematic Role: Patient, AA-category: the AA is not independently lexicalised, Argument index: 6, Topicalisation : -, Comment: Annotation error, The applicative extension is an infix

(26)VERB: fuuka, Meaning: 'turn against'

(27) VERB: som, Meaning: talk, Themantic Role: Subject matter, AA-category: AA is not independently realized,

(28)VERB: ŋond, MEANING: 'easier', 'softer', Themantic Role: Beneficiary, AA-category: AA is not independently realized,

(29)VERB: w Meaning: 'give'

(30)VERB: w Meaning: 'give'