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Co Tu Grammar discussion

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The following are example sentences from the Co Tu Grammar [1]


CƠ TU GRAMMAR

by

Tạ Văn Thông, Nguyễn Hữu Hoành, Nguyễn Văn Lợi

Hà Nội – Quảng Nam

2006  

For sentences in the editor, see http://typecraft.org/tc2/ntceditor.html#2887.


In the grammar text, the sentences are given with English translation, for example


1 Tamoóh! (Please ask!)

2 Moót ơq! (Please come in!)

3 Tabhlớng! (Come on!)

4 Liêm! (So pretty!)

5 Đống akonh ku. (My father’s house there.)

6 Xơơng. (Five).

7 Ha-oói! (Where?)

8 Ve năl kăh? (Understand?)

9 Amêq zeeq avíq. (Mother cooks rice.)

10 Amoq cha haroo. (Mouse eats rice.)

11 Ama lớng amêq bhrơq haree. (Father and mother till the field.)

12 Atưch, vich, ađha pơđoo cha haroo. (Chicken, duck, white duck eat rice.)

13 Bơr pơnống axeéh xoók kach bhơi. (Two horses are grazing.)

14 Pazêng bơr bheéq tới ới xuôh. (Both the two hands were washed.)

15 Hanuô apee manưih jéh kăh cha avíq. (Yesterday those sick people did not eat rice.)

16 Pee kơxeé kơq tươk ơnnoo xaxoot. (The harvest will come in three months.)

17 Ploóng glúh ới kađớp. (The door closed already.)

18 Ađoo bớn ơmbhiq. (He got beaten.)

19 Ahee kăh la kabhuh parzơk anoo amơới. (We are not your brother’s friends.)

20 Veel ơngnơớu veel Ađhuôk. (This village is the village of the Kinh (Viet) people.)

21 Hanuô la tơngơới pling. (Yesterday was a festive day.)

22 Ađoo bếch. (He sleeps).

23 Đống ơngtôh liêm. (That house [is] beautiful.)

24 Abhươp pơrhai pơrhươn đui ciên. (He merrily tells stories.)

25 Ava Tiêng gleeng pénh. (Uncle Tiêng aims to shoot.)

26 Aku ới chơlang lới. (I saw it.)

27 Xốk chachơớu tăm đhưnh lớng chơgeén dal. (My hair is black and long.)

28 Măt tangơới bhléh bêl radiu, lơơp bêl habu. (The sun rises in the morning and sets in the evening.)

29 Akoon panđíl ku zết chơpăt kơmoo. (My daughter [is] sixteen [years old])

30 Oói đớu haree haroo tamee. (This is a new rice field.)

31 Ploóng glúh ơngnơớu lớng hơnloong. (This door is made of wood.)

32 Adới la manưih pơrhăi pơrhươn. (He is a cheerful person.)

33 Aku ve bơr beéq đống. (I have two houses.)

34 Tơngơới tơrnu ahee lươt tabơơn. (The day after tomorrow we will go hunting.)

35 Oói đớu pađoo kăh ve nang. (Here they don’t have gardens.)

36 Amêq mơớt kakoong đơk pơới tri. (Mother goes to the forest to pick mushrooms.)

37 Kiêng kavan, veel bhươl ahee băn tabớk atưch, vich, ađha. (If [we want] to be rich, we villagers have to raise many chickens, ducks and white ducks.)

38 Chơ chabrơq, nơớu kới ve boo. (Fortunately, today it rains.)

39 Aku kớl pơrnơng ơngnơớu đoóng akoon ku. (I buy this hat for my child.)

40 Aku mamống đhíq Kà Di, parzơk ku đhíq ATing. (I live in Kà Di, my friend in ATing.)

41 Ađhri ríl abhoo, ama tal haree. (Younger brother picks up corn, father clears field.)

42 Ađhi bhơl, anoo rơl. (Younger brother cries, elder brother comforts.)

43 Amoq cha haroo, amêq lơnguôq. (Mouse eats rice, mother is sad.)

44 Amêq dứr zeeq avíq, chơlang lới mứi panống đhurr. (Mother gets up to cook rice, sees a snake.)

45 Amêq chơlang lới mứi panống đhur, amêq hađeér kapớn abhlớng. (Mother saw a snake, (so) mother was scared.)

46 Dưm ama kăh kớl khen haku, hadzớq aku chơgeén lơnguôq. (As father does not buy khen for me, so I am very sad.) [khen is a bamboo woodwind musical instrument popular among the highlanders in Vietnam]

47 Bhrơq haree, hadzớq ooq havíl achíq. (Till the field, do not forget knife.)

48 Dứm kăh năl chứq Kơtu, hadzớq ahee hók đók hók xrăq. (Because not knowing Cơ Tu script, so we learn to read and write.)

49 Ahee hók đók hók xrăq, dứm kăh năl chứq Kơtu.

50 Kăh năl chứq Kơtu, ahee hók đók hók xrăq.

51 Hadang hók chưq ka đhap, năk aku kăh hók choom. (If learning the script is difficult, then I cannot learn.)

52 Ađhi bhơl, năk anoo tưl rơl. (Younger brother is angry, elder brother has to calm [him] down.)

53 Hadang jéh, ooq đăh ađhăh ma-íh. (If sick, then don’t eat stale meat.)

54 Hadang tuh bhleh, năk ooq hơớm đhíq tơớm. (If flood comes, then/so should not bathe in spring/stream.)

55 Tuh bhleh, năk ooq hơớm đhíq tơớm.

56 Tuh bhleh, ooq hơớm đhíq tơớm.

57 Ooq hơớm đhíq tơớm, hadang tuh bhleh.

58 Hơnđhơ ve boo, đhăng azi dzơq bhrớq haree. (Although it rains, but we till the field.)

59 Hơnđhơ đhơkênh ataq liêm, đhăng ađoo kăh choom xúl. (Although parrot is pretty, yet it does not know how to sing.)

60 Đống aku katứiq, hơnđhơ kiđêk chơgeén liêm. (My house is small, but very beautiful.)

61 Amêq ka-ăi tới, đhăng amêq dzơq lươt chóh atau. (Mother’s hands hurt, but she goes to plant sugar canes.)

62 Amêq dzơq lươt chóh atau, hơnđhơ amêq ka-ăi tới.

63 Hơnđhơ amêq ka-ăi tới, amêq dzơq lươt chóh atau.

64 Azi adô angăh dauq mamơ adô amêq. (We love teacher like mother.)

65 Anoo chapơq boo hađhi kớnh amêq moon. (Elder brother covers younger brother from the rain as mother tells.)

66 Nang đhăn boo, nang đénh dươh ka-ăi. (The more one is in the rain, the longer it takes to recover from the sickness.)

67 Pớng ha dứm, bhơrương nang ang pabhlớng. (The later the night, the brighter the moon.)

68 Bêl ama tal haree, amêq kéch bhơi. (While father is clearing the field, mother is picking up vegetables.)

69 Bêl boo ve grớm téh, ooq dzoóng tơơq hơnloong. (When it rains with thunder and lightning, [you] shouldn’t stand under trees.)

70 Xoók xốk pluk dzơq kuk arak. (When hair turns grey, still wear beads.)

71 Dzơq kuk arak, xoók xốk pluk.

72 Tơngơới kới, A Dang ới ama amêq đoóng tíng lươt oói haree. (Today, A Dang is brought up to the field by parents.)

73 Hơnđhơ đhơngai hók kống năl chưq, ava hah. (Everyone who learns knows the script [how to read], sir.)

74 Akónh pachoom akoon tanh zống, pénh pơnénh. (Father teaches child how to make baskets and shoot arrows.)

75 Veel ahee ve tơpơơl đống tamee. (Our village has seven new houses.)

76 Akoon pơniên kăh đoóng. (The child does not agree.)

77 Kăh ới, ađhi havíl kăh ới ríl abhroo. (Not yet, I forget not to pick up corns = No, I forgot to pick up corns.)

78 Éh, ama ku kăh kiêng bhrơq dzơq. (No, my father does not want to do [it] any more!)

79 Haree kăh roóh, chơrnóh kăh liêm. (Field does not burn, crops are not good.)

80 Đống ơngtôh kăh liêm. (That house is not nice.)

81 Ngai bhrơq bhơi abhoo? (Who clears the grass for the corn?)

82 Anoo pachoom pơraq Kơtu đoóng ngai? (Who(m) do you teach Cơ Tu?)

83 Apee lớng ngai vôiq bơơn óih? (Who do you go to fetch fuelwood with?)

84 Ve ngai năl xrăq chưq Kơtu? (Who knows how to write Cơ Tu?)

85 Hơớu amăi kabơơp lớng ama? (what – you – whisper – with – father = What did you whisper to father?)

86 Au ađoo pơrhơm hơớu? (What color is his shirt?)

87 Pazêng apee pơniên hơớu kanoóq bhrơq radiu tơmee? (What do you dream to do in the future?)

88 Gur găr văl dzúng, la ơnghơớu? (Winding round your leg, what is it?) [a riddle/ quiz]

89 Ơnđoo tới ka-ăi? (which – hand – hurt = which hand hurts?)

90 Ơnđoo ravéh ađhi kiêng cha? (which – vegetable – you – like – eat = which vegetable do you like to eat?)

91 Ơnđoo pô liêm? (which – flower – pretty = which flower is pretty?)

92 Ơnđhíq vaih bớk axiu? (Which place has many fish?)

93 Ơnđhíq ka-ăi amơới? (which place – hurt – you = Where is your pain?/Where does it hurt you?)

94 Ha-o ói lươt anoo? (Where – go – you = Where do you go?)

95 Pơniên bêk óih ơnđăh tươk oói đớu? (Children bring fuelwood here from where?)

96 Anoo kớl mơ panống chơrun? (You bought how many mangos?)

97 Mơ beéq pô liêm, mơ beéq pômôp? (how many flowers are beautiful, how many flowers are ugly?)

98 Amooq ve mơbớk akoon? (How many children have you got?)

99 Takoóh năk mơbớk kơmoo? (How old is he?)

100 Ơmbhêl veel Kon Da ve lơp hók chưq Kơtu? (When will Kon Da village have a class for learning Cơ Tu script?)

101 Ơngkớnh ađhi kăh lươt hók? (Why don’t you go to school / come to class?)

102 Dưm kớnh ama kăh bhrơq takoóh veel dzơq? (Why do you not continue to work as village head any more, father?)

103 Amêq tal haree hadzău ríl abhooo? (You clear the field or pick up corn, mother?)

104 Ađoo gleéh jéh hadzău amơới gleéh jéh? (He is sick or you are sick?)

105 Ađhi ve kiêng hók tanh vai kăh? (You like to weave fabrics or not?)

106 Ahee ve bơơn kól pahư kakoong dadíng kăh? (We are allowed to cut and destroy the forest or not?)

107 Ađhi kiêng hók tanh vai kăh?

108 Ahee bơơn kól pahư kakoong dadíng kăh?

109 Anhi ới lươt hók kăh? (you – PAST – go – learn – not = Have you gone to school yet?)

110 Akăn dzơq ka-ăi tới kăh? (Does your hand still hurt, Mother?)

111 Ahee kăh kól pahư kakoong, choom kăh? (We do not cut forest, is it alright?)

112 Hamuô ama kaduô anoo chô, hah? (Yesterday father told brother to come home, did you?)

113 Anhăng lươt cha-ơh ớh? (We go out to play, shall we?)

114 Hơdăng ahee praq galơk? (How should it be that we told lies? = We have no reason to tell lies, We couldn’t have told lies!)

115 Hơdăng ađoo bhaluôh đơớh lớh aku hah? (Isn’t it possible that he is faster than me, is it?)

116 Ma ốm đak! (ma – drink – water = Drink!)

117 Mapar! (ma – fly = Fly away!)

118 Bếch aq! (Sleep now!)

119 Bhơnooch aq, ơ anoo! (Sing now!)

120 Chô oói đống, chachơớu! (Go home, kid!)

121 Gluh! (Get out!)

122 Pénh kree! (Shoot and hit! (Don’t miss!))

123 Pacha avíq hakoon! (Feed the child!)



Here we make an attempt to show some of the examples with morpho-syntactic annotation, with all possible provisos for correctness.


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  1. CƠ TU GRAMMAR 2006, by Tạ Văn Thông, Nguyễn Hữu Hoành, Nguyễn Văn Lợi, Hà Nội – Quảng Nam